Tag Archives: fiber optical cable

Data Center Upgrade — Who Should Be Responsible for Buying Transceivers?


There was a time that cable products specifically associated with hardware OEMs. If a company was buying or using one of these vendors’ products, the matching cables also had to be used. Therefore, whoever was responsible for managing the hardware was also responsible for the cabling used to connect the devices together. Then, the structured cabling industry replaced this. The cabling infrastructure is now viewed as an independent asset separate from the IT hardware. This has allowed companies to make purchasing decisions for IT and cabling without the concern of each other. But this may be a problem. To understand the problem, let’s understand the LAN network operation principles first.


The OSI Model of LAN Network
As we know, the operation of local area networking (LAN) was defined with the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI Model). The OSI Model defined seven layers of operation. By using the model, the industry could develop networking functions in a modular fashion and still ensure interoperability. The bottom of the stack is Layer 1, the Physical Layer. Layer 1 includes the cabling that is used to connect the various pieces of equipment together so that the data can be transported. The next step up on the stack is Layer 2, the Data Link Layer. Layer 2 provides for addressing and switching, so that the data can be sent to the appropriate destination. Layer 3 is the Network Layer, where data can be routed to another network. Layers 4 through 7 deal with software implementations.

OSI Model
The OSI Model meant that an end-user could purchase software (Layer 7) and expect it to work on multiple vendors’ hardware (Layer 2). And the hardware could be connected using multiple vendors (Layer 1). Structured cabling now had a home within Layer 1. Then this module leads to division of responsibility, for cabling versus network design specifications. The end-user ended up having “cabling people” and “networking people” on their staff. Each group of people used their own set of vendors and supply chains to specify and source their materials. And they each only needed a very basic understanding of what the other people were doing. This system has worked very well for the enterprise LAN. So what’s the problem?

What Is the Problem?
In the 1990s, copper cable was widely used in data center cabling deployment. As time went on, optical fiber cable was added. In fiber switches, it is common to use pluggable transceivers. This is done for a variety of reasons, but one is cost. Even though a transceiver is plugged into a switch, it is part of the OSI Model’s Layer 1, the Physical Layer. Additionally, most of the transceiver is part of the Physical Media Dependent (PMD) portion of Layer 1, as illustrated here. This means that the transceiver and the cable types must match.

transceiver Physical Media Dependent
However, unlike copper, there was never a fixed standard on the connector type or channel distance. Fiber may have many different standards and connector options. With multiple fiber types, multiple operating wavelengths, and multiple connectivity options, the number of solutions seemed limitless. Since the transceiver is physically plugged into the switch, it has always been considered the networking group’s responsibility. “Networking people” are responsible for buying transceivers and “cabling cable” are responsible for buying cabling products, then this causes the problem. Let’s take the following real-life case for example.

Real-life Case and Solution
Company A has a data center. Marsha is the facilities manager and is responsible for the data cabling. She has designed a cabling plan that has migrated from 1G into 10G. Anticipating the 40G requirements defined by IEEE 802.3ba (40GBase-SR4), she used a cassette-based platform to allow for the transition from LC connectivity of 10G to the MPO connectivity of 40G. Greg is the network manager. As the migration to 40G switches was about to commence, his hardware vendor recommended that they change to a new unique transceiver solution that used LC connectivity. This appeared to be a great idea because it would mean that Marsha would not have to change any of her connectivity. However, he did not consult with Marsha, because the hardware decisions are his to make. When the 40G switches arrived, Marsha was surprised by the connectivity choice because it limited her power budget. So this division causes the problem.

data center transceiver
Greg needs to have a 40G connection from Rack A to Rack B. From a Layer 2/3 perspective, that is all that matters. He still has the responsibility and complete control to define his needs and select equipment vendors for things like switches, routers, servers, etc. Instead of defining the form of the data rate, he simply specifies the speed. By shifting the single component (pluggable transceiver) from Greg to Marsha, the organization can make its decision much more efficiently. Greg does not have to worry about the variety of fiber and transceiver options, nor the impacts that they have on each other. And Marsha can manage the entire optical link, from transceiver to transceiver, which is all within Layer 1. Her experience with fiber and connectivity options puts her in a better position to determine which transceiver options are the most appropriate.

Looking back, the onset of structured cabling separated the cabling purchasing from the IT hardware purchasing. Looking at present-day and into the future, rapidly increasing data rates, especially in the data center are requiring another shift in the way we conduct business. By redefining the link to include not only cabling and connectivity, but also the transceiver, we put Layer 1 performance in the hands of the people most familiar with it. FS.COM provides a full range of transceivers and matched cabling products with the most cost-effective price. Aimed at offering a high performance-price ratio solutions for you.

How To Get the Best Broadband Service


The best broadband service is by these factors are most important to you. If the money is not the problem, the best plan is likely to be the fastest. If money is the primary concern, the best broadband might be the least expensive service. If it’s convenient, defined the best may be simple, call your cable TV company; or perhaps customer service is your number one concern, making your choice of the Internet Service Provider (ISP) the most important factor in choosing the best broadband provider. It’s likely that it will be a combination of these factors taken in different degrees that will define the best broadband for you, so let’s take them one at a time.

Fastest: If you have a need for speed and your wallet is willing to look the other way, watch out for fiber optic broadband. While only available in select areas, fiber optical cable is replacing copper telephone lines and can pack a whollop when it comes to bandwidth. This cable can deliver television, digital phone and Internet with plenty of room to spare. As of February 2009, a vendor offer speeds of up to 50 Mbps (megabits per second) of about $140 US Dollars (USD) per month. If your wallet just look back your way, consider bottom tier plans of 10 Mbps for about $45 USD per month.

Cable TV broadband will be the next best choice, if you need speed. Cable can handle the transfer rate of up to 30Mbps, though most cable plans to place limit bandwidth to accommodate more customers at reduced 3 Mbps. High local load, (many local residents surfing at once), can also slow service if allotted bandwidth runs short.

A top DSL program can wet your whistle of 6 Mbps speed, but be sure to ask if you live in the local DSL router or digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM). Your physical address to the DSLAM, nearly the speed of the closer you will be the top boundary of the plan.

Cheapest: DSL plans have introductory speeds at affordable prices, making this your best broadband choice when budget is the main concern. DSL providers offer plans with speeds up to 768 kilobits per second (kbps) for about $14 USD per month in most areas. Dial-up operates at less than 54 kbps, making even the slowest DSL plan many times faster for your cruising pleasure.

Easiest: If you don’t have time to shop for a provider and you want to surf the Internet and the investment with the least loss of time, please contact your local cable TV provider. They will provide Internet access to your cable line directly or by subscribing you to a third party, to provide broadband service for them.

Many people think that the Internet cable is the best choice, because it is faster than DSL broadband, despite some cross over in speed and plans. Cable can theoretically accommodate up to 30

Mbps, but is usually capped by the provider at speeds between 3-20 Mbps. Cable Internet costs about $45 USD per month or more.

Best Customer Service: It may be, you are a new broadband, can comfort you through the process you want to know, if you need, no headaches long telephone tips and automatic menu, slowly let you are confused about what to do. In many cases, a local or smaller DSL company will provide superior customer service to large, national group, telecom or cable company.

Search listings of DSL providers in your area, then to contact potential suppliers by calling the customer service number listed on the website the ISPs. You should not be more than one menu to navigate to a real person, waiting for should be reasonable for the time of day. Asked on behalf of the company’s customer service, and then with a little research online, and see how they are current clients.

Websites like DSL report has a wealth of information providers isp and interest rates according to the feedback. Note, however, the satisfactory companies rarely leave feedback and disgruntled customers tend to be more motivation. No company can please everyone, but you should get an idea, along with your phone, which companies might be the best broadband provider for you.

Regardless of priority, if you use the USENET Newsgroups, ensure that provides of news feed or you will be forced to get a third party service. The number of email addresses afforded might also be important if you’ll be sharing the plan with family members. Provide your own modem can also save a small monthly fee, if you are comfortable configuration DSL or cable modem to connect to the service.

How To Improve The Reliable And Stable Operation Of The Optical Fiber Cable


The fiber optical cable is a certain amount of fiber cable core, according to certain outsourcing jacket, and some coated outer sheath to achieve a communication line of the optical signal transmission. The fiber optic cable is today’s information society various information network transfer tool. If the “Internet” is referred to as the “information superhighway”, then the fiber optic cable network is the cornerstone of the information highway – cable network is the physical routing of the Internet. Once a cable destruction and blocking, the direction of the “information superhighway” is destroyed. Through the optical transmission of information, in addition to the usual telephone, telex, fax outside, a large number of transmission moment of television signals, bank transfer, the stock market can not be interrupted. , Cable plays an important role in today’s information society, once the cable is damaged, easy to make the communication to transmit information is not working properly, affecting work and life.

So, in today’s information society, how to improve the reliable and stable operation of the ordinary optical fiber cable is an important topic that we can not ignore.

The first point, the path of scientific and rational choice. Ordinary Aerial Cable is running the main members of the power of optical networking. To make the cable safe and stable operation, we must first choose a suitable path after construction but also maintenance personnel regularly check and maintenance in order to ensure the stable operation of the fiber optic cable in the future. The path of the fiber optic cable along the highway should try to choose, Village Road side toward the outside but also consider other environmental factors.

The second point, the loss of the fiber optic cable and its solutions. The stability and reliability of the optical fiber and transmission loss characteristics is to determine one of the most important factor of the optical fiber transmission distance optical fiber transmission loss causes are many, in the construction and maintenance of optical fiber communication network, the most noteworthy is the fiber transmission loss caused and how to reduce these losses. Transmission loss is mainly caused in the use of fiber splice loss (inherent in the fiber splicing losses and activities splice loss) and non-splice loss (caused by the loss of bending loss and other construction factors and application environment) categories.

Cable design and planning, rational distribution, construction experience needs to continue to explore and accumulate further improve the fiber optic cable construction program. Eliminating defects by means of fiber-optic cables run, constantly sum up the problems found in the running, can improve the quality of optical transmission, to extend the service life of the fiber optic cable, to adapt to the needs of the system communications and development and construction.From FiberStore,we provide some types of bulk fiber optic cable,including Indoor Cables, Outdoor Cables, FTTH Cables, Armored Cables, LSZH Cables and some special cables. They are various at Aerial Cables, Building Cables, Direct buried cables, Duct Cables, Underwater/Submarine Cable. If you have any questions with fiber optic cable,welcome to contact us Sales@fs.com .