The Knowledge Of Fiber Optic Cables


The Basics Knowledge Of Fiber Optic Cables

1.1 What is Fiber Optic Calbe?

The fiber optic cable mainly consist of a protective plastic sleeve and plastic sheath structure, no internal cable gold, silver, copper and aluminum and other metals, usually no recycling value. Fiber Patch Cables is a certain amount of the composition according to a certain way of cable core, outsourcing has a jacket, and some also cover the outer sheath to achieve a communication line optical signal transmission. It is the optical fiber cable (optical transmission medium) after the formation of a certain process.

1.2 The factors that affect fiber performance and lifetime

A) Stress: Causes fiber breaks or attenuation increases
B) Water and moisture: the fiber is easy to break (brittle), the impact of life
C) Hydrogen (pressure): the role of a fiber having a hydrogen pressure of mutated fiber attenuation curve of the absorption peak at 1240nm, 1310nm, and the attenuation significantly increased at a wavelength of 1550nm.

1.3 Classification of fiber optic cable

A) By fiber optic cable in the state in points: tight structure, loose structure, semi-loose semi-tight structure
B) By the cable core structure: central tube, Stranded, skeleton, Mode Conditioning Patch Cable, MPO Fiber cable.
C) By the conditions of the cable laying: aerial, pipeline, buried and underwater fiber optic cable
D) By the condition of the use of fiber optic cable with the different types: Single Mode Fiber Patch Cable, Multimode Fiber Cable.
E) By the Environment occasion of using fiber cable: outdoor cables, indoor cables.

1.4 The basic properties of fiber optic cable

Transmission characteristics of the cable depends on the coated fiber. Mechanical properties of the fiber optic cable requirements and environmental characteristics determined by the conditions of use. After the cable production out of the main items of these features, such as tension, pressure, torsion, bending, shock, vibration and temperature, to do routine testing in accordance with national standards. Finished cable is generally required to give the following characteristics, parameters of these characteristics can be analyzed to calculate the empirical formula, here we only briefly qualitative description.

1) The characteristics of Tensile properties

Maximum tension cable can withstand depends reinforcement material and cross-sectional area, generally require more than 1km cable weight, most cable at 100 ~ 400kg range.

2) The characteristics of Pressure

Side cable can withstand the maximum pressure depends on the material and structure of the sheath, most of the cable can withstand the maximum pressure side 100 ~ 400kg/10cm.

3) Bending properties

The main characteristics of bending depends on the material and structure of the core, the cladding and the relative refractive index difference cable. Practical minimum bend radius optical fiber is generally 20 ~ 50mm, the minimum cable bend radius is generally 200 ~ 500mm, equal to or greater than the minimum bend radius of the fiber. Under the above conditions, the fiber of optical radiation caused by the additional loss can be ignored, if less than the minimum bending radius, the additional loss increased dramatically.

4) Temperature properties

Fiber itself has good temperature characteristics. Cable temperature characteristics of design choice and depends on the configuration of the cable material, the temperature characteristics optical fiber which use of secondary coated loose tube cable is better. When the temperature changes, the optical fiber loss increases, primarily due to the cable material (plastic) than the coefficient of thermal expansion of the fiber material (quartz) 2 ~ 3 orders of magnitude, in the thermal expansion or shrinkage process, the fiber produced by the stress. In China, the use of temperature requirements for fiber optic cable, usually in the low-temperature region of -40 ℃ ~ +40 ℃, high temperature region is -5 ℃ ~ +60 ℃.

1.5 Cable moisture measures

A) Radial waterproof – fiber cream and jelly filled cables, metal belt longitudinally, PE jacket

B) Axial waterproof – fiber cables cream and cream filling, water blocking ring, waterproof tape, water blocking yarn, single core strengthening

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