Category Archives: Passive Optical Network

To Introduce Optical Communication and Internet Technology

Technology of terabit optic circuit packet integrated switching system
New exchange system and integrated optic circuit packet layers will be provided to meet the large capacity, high quality, low cost and effective demand so as to adapt to the cable wireless traffic spikes in the service in the future.
A connection-oriented packet transport technology is considered to be an effective way to improve the performance of packet data transmission. It is necessary, can put a layer of transport network in the direction of capital spending and minimizing operating costs to overcome the network provider’s storage and traffic increase of income. And unified control mechanism is applied to the network resource allocation, flexible wavelength circuit and packet layer according to the service characteristics. The key technologies of the system are as followings.
Technology of Terabit Optic-Circuit-Packet Integrated Switching System
  * Connection-oriented Packet Transport
  * Optic-Circuit-Packet Integrated Switch
  * Optic-Circuit-Packet Layer Integrated Control/Management
Technology of beyond-100G Optical Transmission
  * Long-reach OTN Transceiver

  * Short-reach Ethernet Transceiver

Technology of terabit optic circuit packet integrated switching system
Smart IDC Network Control Technology for Cloud Service
Along with the rapid spreads and changes of cloud services and the technologic growth of the components in the IDC, the IDC networks are demanding following changes.
Cloud optimized: The virtualization rate of the server is rising up to 10:1-100:1 and storage virtualization is also possible recently. So IDC is requiring the cloud-optimized virtualization to the network side which are connecting the virtualized cloud resources.
Flattened: There are network control needs to reduce the delay latency of virtualized server-to-server communications which is occuping up to 70%, to rise the utilization rate the link resources of L2 IDC networks of Tree-shape multi-layer hierarchical architecture with STP.
Auto-Managed: There are demands of integrated management of network and cloud resources between IDC and create/delete/VM migration to ensure seamless services in the cloud.

Therefore, our research target to develop the Smart IDC optical network solution to solve the current problems of IDC network with the 3 IDC network control technologies of the Cloud-Optimized Virtual Network Control technology, the Flattened IDC Network Control Technology and Auto-managed IDC network control technology.

High speed optical transmission technology

The rapid progress in optical transmission technology has been supporting the ever increasing transmission traffic. In particular, the WDM technology, it is by the end of last century, played a main role. However, the new technology needs to use data traffic exponentially. A solution is 100Gb/s transmission. IEEE announced 40G/100G Ethernet standard and ITU-T has completed ONT standard to accommodate 100G signals in DWDM backbone network. Recently, the 100Gb/s transmission technology has become the commercial deployment, in addition to the existing 10Gb/s and 40Gb/s. Already technologies beyond 100G or 400G are started being discussed. With a long-term perspective, it is a disruptive

technology, SDM (space division multiplexing) technology is seriously explored to harness the traffic in economic and energy efficient way.

Next Generation WDM-PON Technology
The WDM-PON is promising technology to provide broadband access offering optic-wireless converged next generation multi-application service with the highest quality.
There are many advantages of the WDM-PON:
* Using multiple wavelength on a single fiber, each of which carries a transmission bandwidth up to 10Gb/s at maximum; Therefore, the WDM-PON can reduce the optical access infrastructure;
* Suitable for long-reach application and possible to achieve OPEX reduction;
* Provide co-existence with legacy TDM-PON (EPON system, and GPON) systems and pay as you grow upgradability;
* Unique advantages of so-called protocol transparency, which means that it requires no specific transmission protocol, and the physical layer security, in addition to scalability in the increase of the bandwidth and guarantee of the quality of service based on bandwidth abundance.

What does an Optical Attenuator do


An optical attenuator is a device commonly used to lower the amount of power of an optical signal in a fiber optic communication system. In fiber optics, attenuation can also be called transmission loss. It’s the reduction in light signal intensity with regards to the distance traveled by the signal inside a transmission medium. Attenuation is an important element to limit the transmission of the digital signal driving considerable distances. Optical attenuator reduces this optical signal because it travels along a totally unoccupied space or perhaps an optical fiber.

Optical fiber attenuators may employ several principles when utilized in fiber optic communications. One common principle may be the gap loss principle. Attenuators by using this principle are responsive to the modal distribution ahead of the attenuator. Thus, they should be utilized at or close to the transmitting end. Otherwise, the attenuators could establish less loss than intended. This problem is avoided by attenuators which use absorptive or reflective principles.

You will find three basic types of optical attenuator: the fixed attenuator, step-wise attenuator and the continuously variable attenuator. Fixed attenuators reduce light signals by a specific amount of negligible or no reflection. Because signal reflection isn’t an issue, fixed attenuators are known for more accurate data transmission. Principal components associated with fixed attenuators include the flatness over a specified frequency, range, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), the quantity of attenuation, average and peak power-handling capability, performance over a specific temperature, size and height. Fixed attenuators are also often accustomed to enhance interstage matching in an electronic circuit. Thornton’s fixed attenuators can be found from 5 dB to 25 dB. Mini-Circuits’ fixed attenuators are packaged in rugged plug-in and connector models. They are available in both 50- and 76-ohm models which range from 1to 40 dB spanning DC to 1500 MHz.

In variable optical attenuators (VOA), resistors are replaced with solid state devices like the metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFETs) and PIN diodes. VOA attenuates light signal or beam inside a guarded manner. Thus producing an output optical beam with various attenuated intensity. The attenuator adjusts the ability ratio between your bright beam from the tool and the light beam entering the device over a changeable rate. VOA is usually used in fiber optic communication systems to manage optical power levels in order to prevent damages in optical receivers which may be due to irregular or fluctuating power levels. Price of commercial VOA varies depending on the manufacturing technology used.

Fiberstore claims that it is optical attenuator units produce precision amounts of attenuation, utilizing the added flexibility of adjustment. Fiberstore’s variable attenuators can be found in single mode and multi-mode versions. They have low insertion loss and back reflection. The attenuators will also be compact in dimensions and obtainable in multiple packaging options. These attenuators could be adjusted in milliseconds with a simple square wave bias between 0 and 10 volts.

LC Connector And LC Attenuator


fiber optic connector terminates the end of an optical fiber and enables quicker connection and disconnection than splicing. The fibers are mechanically coupled and aligned to ensure that light can pass.

There has been many different connectors introduced through the development of fiber optic components previously many years. A lot of companies and individuals happen to be trying to improve the options that come with certain connectors to be able to gain control of the fiber optic industry, but only few have been successful. As technology increases, various fiber optic components have become less expensive.

There are various color codes for connectors and they have changed throughout the years. In early stages of fiber optic history, orange, black or grey represented multimode connectors and yellow represented single mode. These original codes became complicated with the introduction of metallic connectors so colored boots were developed, like FC and ST. Now, beige boots stand for multimode, blue means single mode and APC or angled connectors are represented by green boots.

The LC connector is a universal connector. It is available in simplex and duplex configurations and is half how big the SC and utilizes a 1.25mm ferule. The LC is highly favored for single mode and is easily terminated with an adhesive. They’re actively replacing the SC connectors in corporate environments due to their smaller size.

Built on style with LC, LC attenuators really are a combination of a connector on a definite end, as well as an adapter on the other. This enables so that it is “plugged-in” to just about any LC adapter. The assembly contains a ferrule that’s accessible in standard Polish connectors (PC) and 8 degree angle Polish (APC). They’re backward suitable for existing transmission equipment, while the APC attenuators provide superior reflection required for high power and analog equipment. LC fiber optic attenuators are designed to provide horizontal spectral attenuation over the full spectrum vary from 1280nm to 1624nm. This way the LC attenuators expand the capability of optical networks by enabling using the E-band (1400-nm window) for optical transmission.

LC fiber optic attenuator is a passive device accustomed to reduce light signal intensity without significantly changing the waveform itself. It provides a type of metal-ion doped fiber which reduces the noiseless signal because it passes through. This process of attenuation allows for higher performance than fiber splices or fiber offsets or fiber clearance, which function by misdirecting rather than absorbing the joyful signal. This is often a requirement in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) applications in which the receiver can’t accept the signal produced by a high-power light source.

LC fiber optic attenuators are key in controlling manipulating the electricity of an optical path in fiber optic telecommunication systems. LC Build-on fiber optic attenuators are used to reduce excess optical power from the transmitter that can result in over-saturation of the receiver.

These optical attenuators feature simple and rugged structure utilizing ion doped fiber because the attenuating material. They can be placed directly on the active equipment and therefore are able to withstand over 1W of extraordinary power light exposure for longer periods of time, which makes them well-suited to EDFA and other high-power applications.

Noun Explanation of Several Common Optical Passive Devices


Noun Explanation of Several Common Optical Passive Devices

1) What is the PON?

PON is the English abbreviation of Passive Optical Network. Because of its large transmission capacity, low maintenance cost and fiber dosage saving, PON has now become the main optical access technology in the world, and is widely used mainly by the fiber to the home (FTTH) network construction. PON is mainly comprised of OLT, optical splitter and ONU. According to the agreement, PON can be divided into EPON, GPON, WDM-PON and so on.

2) What is the optical passive device?

Optical passive device is a kind of optical components which does not rely on any outside optical or electrical energy, and can do some optical functions by their own, such as coupler, filter and so on. Its working principle complies with the physical and geometrical optics theory, while laser transceiver device based on photoelectric energy conversion is called active devices.

3) How is the optical passive device classified?

Optical passive devices can be classified according to their production process and functions. According to the different production process, optical passive devices can be divided into fiber optical passive devices and integrated optical passive devices. According to the different functions, they can be divided into optical connection devices, optical attenuator, optical splitter, optical wavelength distribution devices, optical isolation devices, optical switch, optical modem devices and so on.

4) What is the main technical indicators to evaluate optical passive devices?

The main technical indicators to evaluate optical passive devices are: insertion loss, return loss, bandwidth, with ups and downs, power allocation error, the wavelength isolation, channel isolation, channel width, extinction ratio, switching speed, speed and so on. Different devices have different requirements of technical indicators, but most of the optical passive devices need the requirements of low insertion loss, high reflection loss, and wide working bandwidth.

5) What is the PLC?

PLC is the English abbreviation of Planar Lightwave Circuit, namely the planar optical waveguide. The optical passive device and traditional vertical difference, PLC devices are used by semiconductor fabrication, which can integrate the optical components with different functions into one chip. PLC is the basic technology of photoelectric device integration, modularization, miniaturization. The devices those are used PLC technology include: optical splitter, arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), variable optical attenuator (VOA), variable optical attenuation combiner (VMUX), reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) and so on.

6) What are the advantages of PLC splitter compared to FBT optical splitter?
Compared with the traditional device FBT splitter used of FBT(Fused Biconical Taper) processing, PLC splitter has wide work wavelength channel loss, good uniformity, small volume, wide working temperature range, high reliability, is currently the preferred connection of OLT and ONU and the realization of optical signal power distribution PON the access network.

7) What is the difference between Full-band PLC splitter and three FBT window splitter?

Due to the working principle and the limit of process, traditional FBT splitter can generally meet the transfer at most three different wavelength, which is called the three window splitter. While the loss of PLC splitter is very low in a very wide wavelength range (1260-1650nm), so in addition to meet the three a window outside the commonly used, PLC splitter can also be used for transmission and management more work wavelength. So PLC splitter is called full-band splitter. The wavelength requirements of EPON and GPON standards were 13101490 and 1550nm, the next generation PON standard (such as WDM-PON) will require more work wavelength. The use of PLC optical branch devices can better adapt to the needs of future network upgrade and development.

Common Passive Fiber Optical Splitters


Fiber optical splitter, also named fiber optic coupler or beam splitter, is a device that can distribute the optical signal (or power) from one fiber among two or more fibers. Fiber optic splitter is different from WDM(Wavelength Division Multiplexing) technology. WDM can divide the different wavelength fiber optic light into different channels, but fiber optic splitter divide the light power and send it to different channels.

Work Theory Of Optical Splitters

The Optical Splitters “split” the input optical signal received by it between two optical outputs, simultaneously, in a pre-specified ratio 90:10 or 80:20. The most common type of fiber-optic splitter splits the output evenly, with half the signal going to one leg of the output and half going to the other. It is possible to get splitters that use a different split ratio, putting a larger amount of the signal to one side of the splitter than the other. Splitters are identified with a number that represents the signal division, such as 50/50 if the split is even, or 80/20 if 80% of the signal goes to one side and only 20% to the other.

Some types of the fiber-optic splitter are actually able to work in either direction. This means that if the device is installed in one way, it acts as a splitter and divides the incoming signal into two parts, sending out two separate outputs. If it is installed in reverse, it acts as a coupler, taking two incoming signals and combing them into a single output. Not every fiber-optic splitter can be used this way, but those that can are labeled as reversible or as coupler/splitters.

Attenuation Of Fiber Optic Splitter

An interesting fact is that attenuation of light through an optical splitter is symmetrical. It is identical in both directions. Whether a splitter is combining light in the upstream direction or dividing light in the downstream direction, it still introduces the same attenuation to an optical input signal (a little more than 3 dB for each 1:2 split). Fiber optic splitters attenuate the signal much more than a fiber optic connector or splice because the input signal is divided among the output ports. For example, with a 1 X 2 fiber optic coupler, each output is less than one-half the power of the input signal (over a 3 dB loss).

Passive And Active Splitters

Fiber optic splitters can be divided into active and passive devices. The difference between active and passive couplers is that a passive coupler redistributes the optical signal without optical-to-electrical conversion. Active couplers are electronic devices that split or combine the signal electrically and use fiber optic detectors and sources for input and output.

Passive splitters play an important position in Fiber to the Home (FTTH) networks by permitting a single PON (Passive Optical Network) network interface to be shared amongst many subscribers. Splitters include no electronics and use no power. They’re the community parts that put the passive in Passive Optical Network and are available in a wide range of break up ratios, including 1:8, 1:16, and 1:32.

Optical splitters are available in configurations from 1×2 to 1×64, such as 1:8, 1:16, and 1:32. There are two basic technologies for building passive optical network splitters: Fused Biconical Taper (FBT) and Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC). FBT Coupler is the older technology and generally introduces more loss than the newer PLC Splitter.

Variable Attenuators Of Fiber Optic Attenuators For Sale From Fiberstore


What is Optical attenuator?

Optical attenuators are used in optical power attenuation device, it is mainly used for fiber optic system of measurement, signal attenuation for short distance communication system and system test, etc. Optical attenuator require light weight, small volume, high precision, good stability, convenient use, etc. It can be divided into fixed, variable, continuous adjustable several classification.

Sometimes in optical network, people need to reduce the fiber optical power levels from one device to another; Fiber optic attenuator is a device, the function. Unit “dB”, normally from 1 dB optical attenuator to 20 dB measures of fiber optic attenuator, fiber optic attenuation level. This is called a fixed value, fiber optic attenuator, each piece of attenuation of optical fiber attenuator is fixed.

Fiber optic attenuators can be designed to use with various kinds of fiber optic connectors. the attenuators can be female to female which is called bulkhead fiber optic attenuator or male to female which is also called a plug fiber optic attenuator. Bulkhead and plug types are designed without cables, another type inline fiber optic attenuator is designed with a piece of fiber optic cable.

Variable Attenuator:

Three basic types of Fiber optical attenuators are step wise variable, continuously variable and fixed.Fiberstore Hot sales fiber optic attenuators are Variable Attenuators. Variable optical attenuator offer a range of attenuation values. They are used for testing and measurement, or when you need to equalize the power between different signals.Variable fiber attenuator can help user vary the light power injected from a light source into the optical fiber. Important parameter of variable fiber attenuator include its insertion loss, reflection loss and attenuation range. We supply ST, FC, SC, LC variable Optical Attenuators with APC, UPC type. Attenuation range available is from 1dB to 30dB.

Wide range variable & inline fiber optic attenuator

The inline fiber optic attenuator are with more accurate attenuation compared with traditional connector type fiber optic attenuators. what is more ,this fiber optic attenuator is with a precision screw set, by turing it ,the attenuation range can be varied. and this fiber optical attenuator can be with various terminations on the each side of the cable.

Fiber optic attenuator technique data

  • UPC type return loss 50dB or greater
  • APC type return loss 60dB or greater
  • Working wavelength 1310nm or 1550nm

You can buy fiber optic attenuator products in our store with your confidence. Welcome to to choose your fiber optic products.We supply all the fiber optics products with high quality but low price.

Summarize Optical Splitters From Fiberstore


Optical Splitters Introduction:

The Fiber Optic Splitter, also named beam splitter, is with multiple input and multiple output end fiber tandem devices, M * N is commonly used to represent a divider with M input and N output.,with coaxial cable transmission system, network system also needs to be light signal is coupled, branch, distribution, and the optical divider is needed for implementation.

Two Kinds Of Fiber Splitters:

Fiber optic splitters are important passive components used in fiber optic communications. Nowadays two kinds of fiber splitters are popular used, one is the traditional fused type fiber optic splitter, which features competitive prices, the other is PLC (planar lightwave circuit) fiber optic splitter ,which is compact size and suit for density applications. Both of these two types fiber splitters has its advantages to suit for different requirement.

Fused Biconic Tapered (FBT) fiber optic splitters are mature technology types, it is low cost and easy to make, but fused fiber optic splitters optical loss are sensitive to wavelength and this is big disadvantages. PLC fiber optic splitters are small size and wide working wavelength, they are more reliable, suitable to use in passive optical network fiber optic splitting, we supply the PLC Splitters including 1*N PLC splitter module and 2*N PLC splitter module .The common configurations are 1×4, 1×8, 1×16, 1×32 and 1×64 PLC Splitters;but 2×4, 2×8, 2×16, 2×32 configurations are also available.

The Theory For Optical Fiber Splitters:

Fiber optic splitter is a device that split the fiber optic light into several parts by a certain ratio.Fiber optic splitters enable a signal on an optical fiber to be distributed among two or more fibers. Since splitters contain no electronics nor require power, they are an integral component and widely used in most fiber optic networks. For example, a 1X4 LC type equal splitting ratio fiber optic splitter can split the fiber optic light signal into four equal 25% parts and sent to the 4 different channels, LC is the connector type on the splitters. Fiber optic splitter key parameters include the optical loss, splitting ratio, isolation, PDL, etc.The diagram below shows how light in a single input fiber can split between four individual fibers (1×4):

Fiber Optic Splitter Features:

  • Single Mode, multimode, and PM fiber types
  • Multiple port configurations
  • Various splitting ratios, 50:50 to 1:99
  • Tube type or Box type
  • PC, UPC, and APC fiber optic connectors
  • Available with FC, SC, ST, LC, and MU terminations

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