Category Archives: Cat5/Cat6/Cat7 Network Cable

Difference Between Straight Through and Crossover Cable


Ethernet cables can be wired as straight through or crossover. The straight through is the most common type and is used to connect computers to hubs or switches. They are most likely what you will find when you go to your local computer store and buy a patch cable. Crossover cables are more commonly used to connect a computer to a computer and may be a little harder to find since they aren’t used nearly as much as straight through cable. Then, what’s the difference between them? Difference between straight through and crossover cables will be introduced in this blog.

T568A And T568B Wiring Standard Basis
A RJ45 connector is a modular 8 position, 8 pin connector used for terminating Cat5e or Cat6 twisted pair cable. A pinout is a specific arrangement of wires that dictate how the connector is terminated. There are two standards recognized by ANSI, TIA and EIA for wiring Ethernet cables. The first is the T568A wiring standard and the second is T568B. T568B has surpassed 568A and is seen as the default wiring scheme for twisted pair structured cabling. If you are unsure of which to use, choose 568B.


What Is Straight Through Cable?
A straight through cable is a type of twisted pair cable that is used in local area networks to connect a computer to a network hub such as a router. This type of cable is also sometimes called a patch cable and is an alternative to wireless connections where one or more computers access a router through a wireless signal. On a straight through cable, the wired pins match. Straight through cable use one wiring standard: both ends use T568A wiring standard or both ends use T568B wiring standard. The following figure shows a straight through cable of which both ends are wired as the T568B standard.


What Is Crossover Cable?
An Ethernet crossover cable is a type of Ethernet cable used to connect computing devices together directly. Unlike straight through cable, crossover cables use two different wiring standards: one end uses the T568A wiring standard, and the other end uses the T568B wiring standard. The internal wiring of Ethernet crossover cables reverses the transmit and receive signals. It is most often used to connect two devices of the same type: e.g. two computers (via network interface controller) or two switches to each other.

Crossover Cable

Choose a Straight Through or Crossover Cable?
Usually, straight through cables are primarily used for connecting unlike devices. And crossover cables are use for connecting unlike devices alike devices.
Use straight through cable for the following cabling:

  • Switch to router
  • Switch to PC or server
  • Hub to PC or server

Use crossover cables for the following cabling:

  • Switch to switch
  • Switch to hub
  • Hub to hub
  • Router to router
  • Router Ethernet port to PC NIC
  • PC to PC


Straight through and crossover cables are wired differently from each other. One easy way to tell what you have is to look at the order of the colored wires inside the RJ45 connector. If the order of the wires is the same on both ends, then you have a straight through cable. If not, then it’s most likely a crossover cable or was wired wrong. At present, the straight through cable is much more popular than crossover cable and is widely used by people. FS.COM provides a full range straight through Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a and Cat7 Ethernet patch cables with many lengths and colors options. Look for Ethernet patch cables, just come to FS.COM!

Does Cat6 on Cat5e Patch Panel or Cat5e on Cat6 Patch Panel Work?

In the market, there exist both Cat5e patch panel and Cat6 patch panel. We know that Cat5e patch panels are meant to be used with Cat5e cable, and Cat6 patch panels are meant to be used with Cat6 cable, but what’s the difference between Cat5e and Cat6 patch panels? Can I use Cat6 cable on Cat5e patch panels or can I use Cat5e cable on Cat6 patch panels? Answers will be provided in this blog.

Cat6 on Cat5e Patch Panel

Can I Use Cat6 on Cat5e Patch Panel?

There isn’t much practical difference in the patch panels themselves. There is a difference in the wire gauge specified between Cat5e and Cat6. The cat6 wire is thicker. Cat6 usually has 23 AWG copper conductors compared to only 24 AWG in Cat5e cable. Another factor making Cat6 a larger wire than Cat5e is the fact that between each of the four pairs in a Cat6 cable there is a spline that will separate each pair from one another. Separating the pairs helps reduce cross-talk between the pairs and gives you a better signal. However, this spline also increases the diameter of the cable. Regardless of the size difference in Cat5e vs Cat6, the fact was that Cat6 cable is backward compatible with Cat5e. Yes, Cat6 is often times a larger cable, but this in no way affects its use with Cat5e patch panels. Feel free to use Cat5e patch panels if you already have them. You can always upgrade them later.

Can I Use Cat5e on Cat6 Patch Panel?

In addition to using Cat6 on Cat5e patch panel, we may also across some situations where we want to use Cat5e on a Cat6 patch panel. According to the passage above, we know that Cat6 cable is thicker than Cat5e, so if I use Cat5e on a Cat6 patch panel, will it be too loose? Although Cat6 individual twisted pairs insulation is usually thicker than Cat5e, this is usually never a problem with termination, only with how many cables you can stuff through a piece of conduit. So, will a Cat5e cable be “looser” terminated on a Cat6 jack, slightly yes, but electrically it will still make contact and work fine. But you should mind that your cabling channel will default to the lowest Catx component. Even though the patch panel says Cat6, with Cat5e cables you should only expect Cat5e performance on those jacks.


When punching down Cat5e wire on a Cat6, the Cat5e wire is enough smaller that it is possible to get what looks like a good punch, but the insulation on the wire is not actually penetrated or is only partially penetrated by the vampire jaw of the punch block. When punching down Cat6 wire on a Cat5e panel, the larger wire can end up bending or even breaking the vampire jaws on the punch down block. In both cases, using care and testing each connection, you can usually make it work. If you’re just doing one panel at home you are probably OK. Although it can both work well, we don’t recommend to do like this. Use the Cat5e on Cat5e patch panel and Cat6 on Cat6 patch panel will get the best performance. FS.COM provide both high-density Cat5e patch panels for Fast Enthernet applications and Cat6 patch panels for 1-Gigabit Enthernet applications. Easy to management and conserves data centers rack space. For more information, please visit

How to Choose Right Cat5e Cable for Your Network?

Cat 5e (Cat 5 enhanced) is currently the most commonly used in new installations. It’s designed to greatly reduce crosstalk, which means the Cat 5e is better at keeping signals on different circuits or channels from interfering with each other. A step above Cat 5, it can handle 1000 Mbps speeds (gigabit Ethernet) at 100 MHz with a maximum cable length of 328 feet (100 meters). How to choose right Cat5e cable for your network? This article may give you the answer.


Straight-Through or Crossover Cat5e Cable?

RJ-45 conductor Cat5e cable contains 4 pairs of wires each consists of a solid colored wire and a strip of the same color. There are two wiring standards for RJ-45 wiring: T-568A and T-568B. The two wiring standards are used to create a cross-over cable (T-568A on one end, and T-568B on the other end), or a straight-through cable (T-568B or T-568A on both ends). To create a straight-through Cat 5e, you’ll have to use either T- 568A or T-568B on both ends of the cable. To create a cross-over Cat5e cable, you’ll wire T-568A on one end and T- 568B on the other end of the cable.


The straight-through Cat5e cables are used when connecting Data Terminating Equipment (DTE) to Data Communications Equipment (DCE), such as computers and routers to modems (gateways) or hubs (Ethernet Switches). The crossover Cat5e cables are used when connecting DTE to DTE, or DCE to DCE equipment, such as computer to computer, computer to router or gateway to hub connections. The DTE equipment terminates the signal, while DCE equipment do not.

Unshielded(UTP) or Shielded(STP) Cat5e Cable?

Shielded twisted cables (STP) reduce electrical noise and electromagnetic radiation. In other words, they help to keep the signal steady, and reduce interference with other devices. This is done with a shield that may be composed of copper tape, a layer of conducting polymer or a braid, and is covered with a jacket. Unshielded twisted cables (UTP) by definition do not have shielding serving them to reduce interference. They are designed to cancel electromagnetic interference with the way the pairs are twisted inside the cable.


If you’re in any situation where you want to make sure that you get the most speed and efficiency out of your network, you’ll probably want to use shielded Cat 5e. It’s hard to know when and where you’ll run into enough EMI to cause a problem, but if you use shielded Cat 5e in the first place you won’t have to worry about tearing the cable from the wall to replace it if you do run into that problem. Due to the design and nature of unshielded Cat 5e, it is most suitable for office LANS and similar network cabling systems. Unshielded Cat 5e are lightweight, thin and flexible. They are also versatile and inexpensive. When properly installed, a well-designed unshielded Cat5e cable will be easier to both install and maintain than a shielded one.

Length and Color Options of Cat5e Cable

When choosing Cat5e cable for your network, you also need to consider length and color. Cat5e Ethernet cables come in standard lengths such as 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 meter. Longer lengths are available, and you can also have custom cable lengths made. The distance between your various network devices and your network switch or router will determine the length you need. Cat5e cables come in all sorts of colors. This decision can be based purely on your individual tastes and preference. Blue is perhaps the most common, but you might also consider white, gray, or some other color that doesn’t clash with your walls and carpet. Pictures below shows ten colors of Cat5e cable provided in Fiberstore.



Cat5e cable supports up to 100 MHz and speeds up to 1 Gbps over 100 meters of cable. Cat5e crossover patch cable is usually used to connect two same of type of devices. Besides, snagless boot prevents unwanted cable snags during installation and provides extra strain relief.


The table below listed several most popular Cat5e cables sold in Fiberstore for your choice.

FS P.N. Description
22831 3m Cat5e Purple Snagless Booted Unshielded(UTP) PVC Ethernet Network Patch Cable
22842 20m Cat5e Blue Snagless Booted Unshielded(UTP) LSZH Ethernet Network Patch Cable
13826 3m Cat5e Green Non-booted Unshielded(UTP) PVC Ethernet Network Patch Cable
22775 1m Cat5e Purple Snagless Booted Unshielded(UTP) PVC Ethernet Network Patch Cable
22835 2m Cat5e Blue Snagless Booted Unshielded(UTP) LSZH Ethernet Network Patch Cable

What’s the Difference Between Fiber Optic Cable, Twisted Pair Cable and Coaxial Cable?

As we know, communication system usually use a wire or cable to connect sending and receiving devices. Currently, the most common cable types deployed in communication system are fiber optic cable, twisted pair cable and coaxial cable. Since each of them can be equally applied into network communication, what’s the difference between them? This article may give some answers.

Twisted Pair Cables
Twisted PairTwisted pair cable consists of a pair of insulated wires twisted together, which is adapted in the field of telecommunication for a long time. With the cable twisting together, it helps to reduce noise from outside sources and crosstalk on multi-pair cables. Basically, twisted pair cable can be divided into two types: unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP). The former serves as the most commonly used one with merely two insulated wires twisted together. Any data communication cables and normal telephone cables belong to this category. However, shielded twisted pair distinguishes itself from UTP in that it consists of a foil jacket which helps to prevent crosstalk and noise from outside source. It is typically used to eliminate inductive and capacitive coupling, so it can be applied between equipment, racks and buildings. There exist following several different types of twisted pair cables:

Twisted Pair Cables

Coaxial Cables
Coaxial-CableCoaxial cable acts as a high-frequency transmission cable which contains a single solid-copper core. A coaxial cable has over 80 times the transmission capability of the twisted-pair. It is commonly used to deliver television signals and to connect computers in a network as well, so people may get more familiar with this kind of cable. There are two coaxial cables: 75 Ohm and 50 Ohm. What’s the application of them respectively?

  • 75 Ohm coaxial cable

The primary use of a 75 Ohm cable is to transmit a video signal. One of the typical applications is television signals over cable, sometimes called signal feed cables. The most common connector used in this application is a Type F. Another application is video signals between components such as DVD players, VCRs or Receivers commonly known as audio/video (A/V) cables. In this case BNC and RCA connectors are most often found. In both of these applications RG59 with both solid center conductor (RG59B/U) and stranded center conductor (RG59A/U) as well as RG6 are often found.

75 Ohm coaxial cable

  • 50 Ohm coaxial cable

The primary use of a 50 Ohm coaxial cable is transmission of a data signal in a two-way communication system. Some common applications for 50 Ohm coaxial cable are computer ethernet backbones, wireless antenna feed cables, GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) antenna feed cables and cell phone systems.

50 Ohm coaxial cable (1)

Fiber Optic Cable

Picture of optical cables pluged in network server

Computing and data communications are fast-moving technologies. There comes a new generation of transmission media—fiber optic cable. It refers to the complete assembly of fibers, which contain one or more optical fibers that are used to transmit data. Each of the optical fiber elements is individually coated by plastic layers and contained in a protective tube. Fiber optic cable transmits data as pulses of light go through tiny tubes of glass, the transmission capacity of which is 26,000 times higher than that of twisted-pair cable. When comparing with coaxial cables, fiber optic cables are lighter and reliable for transmitting data. They transmit information using beams of light at light speed rather than pulses of electricity.

Nowadays, two types of fiber optic cables are widely adopted in the field of data transfer—single-mode fiber optic cables and multimode fiber optic cables. A single-mode optical fiber is a fiber that has a small core, and only allows one mode of light to propagate at a time. So it is generally adapted to high speed, long-distance applications. While a multimode optical fiber is a type of optical fiber with a core diameter larger than the wavelength of light transmitted and it is designed to carry multiple light rays, or modes at the same time. It is mostly used for communication over short distances because of its high capacity and reliability, serving as a backbone applications in buildings.

Singlemode-vs-Multimode Fiber Optic Cable

As the technology in the field of network is developing rapidly, fiber optics seem to become the trend for the increasing demand of the market. However, whether to choose twisted pair cables, coaxial cables or fiber optic cables still depends heavily on applications, which is subject to the cost, transmission distance and performance.

Related Article: Which Patch Cable Should I Choose for My Optical Transceiver?

Comparison Between Fiber Optic and Cat 6 Cabling

In recent years, Cat6 data cabling has become more and more popular for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) networks. Recently, however, fiber optic cabling has become another popular way for businesses to maintain communications. So which of these is best for your company? This article will show you how each works and what makes them different from one another.

What is Cat6 Cabling?

Cat6 CablingCategory 6 cabling (often shortened to cat-6 or cat6) is a type of data cabling that is standard for Gigabit Ethernet and several other network protocols which are not compatible with cat3 cables. As the sixth generation Ethernet cables formed from twisted pairs of copper wiring, cat6 is composed of four pairs of wires, similar to cat5 cables. The primary difference between the two, though, is that cat6 makes full use of all four pairs. This is why cat6 can support communications at more than twice the speed of cat5e, allowing for Gigabit Ethernet speeds of up to 1 gigabit per second.

It is cat6’s speed that has made it such a great choice for VoIP telephony, but there are some setbacks. For starters, there are length restrictions in using this type of data cabling. When used for 10/100/1000BASE-T, the restriction is 100 meters, and when used for 10GBASE-T, the restriction is 55 meters. Another issue is that there are some cat6 cables that are very large and are quite difficult to connect to 8P8C connectors (a type of modular connector used for communications purposes such as phone/Ethernet jacks) when the user does not have a unique modular piece.

What about Fiber Optic Cabling?

Fiber optic cabling sometimes referred to as optical fiber, which is completely different from cat6 and other types of structured cabling systems. This is because optical fiber works by drawing on light as opposed to electricity as a means of transmitting signals. As we all know, light is the fastest mode of transmitting any information which is great for businesses with the need for speed. And because fiber optic cabling has a much cleaner signal than conventional copper cabling, it is able to transmit signals faster than ever before.

Another great thing about optical fiber is that it is immune to electrical interference. This means that a user can run it just about anywhere, anytime. The immunity of light to resistance also allows fiber optic cabling to be run over extremely long distances. In fact, it can be run countries apart without any need for boosting or cleaning the signal.

Which Should you Choose?

If you prefer to stick with old and reliable, copper data cabling may be your best option for now. But be aware that soon, fiber optic cabling may be the only option as it grows in popularity. If you prefer higher speeds, you may want to switch to fiber optic cabling right now—it’s getting faster and better every day. Fiberstore offers both Cat6 copper cables and all kinds of fiber optic patch cable with different connectors. Wish it may satisfy your needs!

Efficient Copper Cable – Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a, and Cat7

When selecting the appropriate Category of cable to support your network, note that there are different grades within each Category. A higher grade cable with the proper installation will allow for a higher margin of error, ensuring top performance today and an extra buffer to support future technology. Properly selecting Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a, Cat7 solutions will optimally support current and future network speed requirements. But which one should you choose? This text will give you some guidance.

The Cat5e has Replaced the Cat5

cat5e patch cableCat5 cable can support 10/100 Ethernet. That is, Ethernet and Fast Ethernet. However, Cat 5e cable can support Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet. Cat5e Cable is completely backwards compatible, and can be used in any application in which you would normally use Cat 5 cable. Crosstalk is the electrical interference that results when one wire’s signal affects another wire’s signal. Cat5e cable has been improved over Cat5 cable in this respect, and cross talk has been greatly reduced. We all know that bandwidth is directly related to network support. The greater the bandwidth, the greater the information-carrying capacity in a given period of time. Cat5e cable is rated at 100 MHz, and it is this increased bandwidth (compared to Cat5 cable) that allows it to support Gigabit Ethernet. Since 1G is widely used today, the Cat5e has gradually replaced the Cat5.

Use the Cat5e or Cat 6?

cat6 UTP patch cableCat6 is a standardized cable for Gigabit Ethernet and other network physical layers that is backward compatible with the Cat5/5e and Cat3 cable standards. Compared with Cat5 and Cat5e,  Cat6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise. The cable standard provides performance of up to 250 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), 1000BASE-T/1000BASE-TX (Gigabit Ethernet). We may notice that both Cat5e and Cat6 can support Gigabit Ethernet, however, Cat6 is certified for Gigabit networking and will perform better over longer distances. So choosing the Cat6 cable will be more stable to meet the Gigabit needs. But one thing you should keep in mind is that your network is only as fast as your slowest component, so unless every piece of your network (routers, cables, etc.) supports Gigabit Ethernet, you will not be able to reach those speeds.

Differences between Cat6 and Cat6a

cat6a stp cableThe latest standard from the TIA for enhanced performance standards for twisted pair cable systems was defined in February 2009 in ANSI/TIA-568-C.1. According to this standard, Cat6a is also called Augmented Cat6, which is 10-Gigabit Ethernet over copper proposal to the Cat6 standard. Category 6a performs at improved specifications, in particular in the area of alien crosstalk as compared to Cat6, which exhibited high alien noise in high frequencies. Cat6 specifies cable operating at minimum frequency of 500 MHz—twice that of Cat 6, for both shielded and unshielded. It can support future 10 Gb/s applications up to the maximum distance of 100 meters on a 4-connector channel. Compared with the Cat6, Cat6a is more effective and flexible. As 10G is more and more widely used, Cat6a will become more and more popular.

Cat7 Will be the Option in the Future

cat7 network patch cableCat7 cables are designed to support much higher frequency signals than Cat5e and Cat6. This allows Cat7 cabling to carry a larger amount of information. Cat7 cable is also able to better protect the signals traveling over the cable. The shielding as well as the tighter twists of the pairs in Cat7 cable lessens the effects of crosstalk and EMI. Cat7 cable is commonly terminated using a GG45 connector, which is a connector that it backwards compatible with the 8p8c RJ45 connectors used on Cat6 or Cat5e cable. The GG45 connector has four additional conductors that provide support for frequencies of up to 600MHz. The higher frequencies allow Cat 7 cable to support 10-Gigabit Ethernet. Currently, Cat7 is not widely adopted. Cat5e and Cat6 solutions sufficiently support the bandwidth requirements of today’s data centers, networks, and end users. Using Cat7 for a connection to a desktop would be unnecessary because the bandwidth would not be utilized. It may also be an unnecessary expense for many data center applications for the same reason. However, as technology advances and requirements increase, Cat7 cable will become more relevant in the data center and desktop connections.

Category Cable Comparison

Some specifications for Cat5, Cat6 and Cat7 are introduced above, then I will show you a table. From the table below, you can see their differences more clearly:

cat5 cat5e cat6 cat6a cat7 cat7a

Learn more about Catx Cabing  Jargon from Here:–5e-cat-6-cat7-cabling-jargon-aid-337.html

Cable Selection for Your 10 Gbps Transmissions — Fiber or Copper?

The decision to deploy fiber or copper really depends on several factors. First is the length of time you think the data center will remain in the same physical location. Fiber-only or copper-only implementations are rare in comparison to mixed fiber and copper.

Fiber will remain the medium of choice for backbone (vertical) applications and increasingly for horizontal applications alongside copper. This is mainly due to the distance support, size of cable, high bandwidth, high density, immunity to EMI/RFI, security, and reliability of fiber. Fiber has been the medium of choice for Storage Area Network (SAN) implementations for many years and is thus a proven cabling component.

Structured Cabling

Copper, on the other hand, is currently being challenged with the recent ratification of 10GBASE-T. Companies are currently racing to market their “unique” copper-based structured cabling solutions for 10 Gbps devices. Cat6a copper cables made for 10 Gbps transmissions are approximately 50 percent thicker than Cat6 copper cables and certainly a lot thicker than fiber cables; the space available for the cable runs may influence the type of cable you deploy. Copper cabling is more suited for horizontal runs, but of course limited to 100 meters distance. It is advisable to install a higher category of cable if you plan to be at the same facility for a while.

Cat6 CablesCat6 Cables Cat6a CablesCat6a Cables

Until recently, copper was the clear winner in a straight cost comparsion. However, recent technology advances are closing the cost gap, especially in the high-performance arena. Fiber-based solutions are dropping in cost, but the main differentiation is in the cost of the active electronic components (e.g. transceivers, converters, amplifiers, etc.), and not in the actual cabling. In parallel, the cost for copper-based solutions is on the rise, due primarily to the stringent implementation and testing requirements imposed by TIA/ISO for 10 Gbps transmissions. Note also that in support of “Greener” data center environments, certain vendors are choosing, designing, and promoting active cabling components and media that consume the least power without compromising performance. 10GBASE-T consumes about 5 to 10 times more electrical power than optical solutions.

Another area that plays an important role in cable selection is the network components that are planned in the data center. Is their interface fiber or copper? And do they support 10 Gbps transmissions? Upgrading the cabling may include swapping out the connectors and other existing cabling components for the ones slated for 10 Gbps.

Note: If you want to deploy Power over Ethernet (PoE), then your choice is limited to copper—carring power over fiber is not yet possible.


In most cases, the end result will be a Combination of Cable Types for the Different Segments of the Infrastructure. Most likely fiber for the backbone, fiber and/or twisted pair for the horizontal runs, and fiber and/or copper for the final patching (since this will be governed by the interface of the equipment that you will be connecting to). When selecting cableing consider the pros and cons for each cable type in each segment of the infrastructure using the following criteria:

    • Existing implementation
    • Installation difficulty
    • Termination difficulty
    • Reliability
    • Distance required
    • Compatibility

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Twisted-Pair Cable Plant Components

Twisted pair cable is good for transferring balanced differential signals. The practice of transmitting signals differentially dates back to the early days of telegraph and radio. The advantages of improved signal-to-noise ratio, crosstalk, and ground bounce that balanced signal transmission bring are particularly valuable in wide bandwidth and high fidelity systems. By transmitting signals along with a 180 degree out-of-phase complement, emissions and ground currents are theoretically canceled. This eases the requirements on the ground and shield compared to single ended transmission and results in improved EMI performance.

A twisted-pair cable plant requires more than just the cabling, which is usually sold in spools of 1000 feet. In addition, you find most of the following components:

● RJ-45 connectors — Whether STP or UTP, most twisted-pair cabling uses registered jack 45 (RJ-45) connectors to plug into network interfaces or other networked devices. This connector looks much like the RJ-11 connector on modular phone jacks, but it’s larger and contains eight wire traces rather than the four or six in an RJ-11. An RJ-45 connector (see Figure 4-3), often called an RJ-45 plug, is most commonly used in patch cables, which are used to connect computers to hubs and switches and computers to RJ-45 wall jacks.

● Patch cable — A Fiber Optic Patch Cable  is a short cable for connecting a computer to an RJ-45 jack or connecting a patch-panel port to a swich or hub. Patch cables can be made with inexpensive tools, two RJ-45 plugs, and a length of TP cable, which you do later in Hands-On Project 4-1. Although making a patch cable is easy, most network administrators prefer buying ready-made cables to save time.
● RJ-45 jacks — An RJ-45 jack is what you plug an RJ-45 connector into when the computer is in a work area away from hubs and swiches. It has a receptacle for an RJ-45 plug on one side and a place to terminate, or “punch down,” the TP cabling on the other side. RJ-45 jacks are usually placed behind wall plates when cables are run inside walls but can also be recessed into the fllor or placed in surace-mounted boxes if the cabling runs on the outsite of walls.

● Patch panel — Patch panels are used to terminate long runs of cable from the work area (where the computer are) to the wiring closet (where the swiches and hubs are). Patch panels are like RJ-45 jacks, in that they have a receptacle on one end and punchdown terminals on the other, but a patch panel can usually accommodate 12,24,or 45 cables. Figure 4-6 shows the front side of a patch panel, where a patch cable plugs in, and the back side, where long runs of cable are terminated.

● Distribution racks — Distribution racks (also called 19-inch racks because the upright rails are 19 inches apart) hold network equipment, such as routers and swiches, plus patch panels and rack-mounted servers. They’re usually found in wiring closets and equipment rooms. Figure 4-7 shows a typical distribution rack.

10BASE-T Collision Domain Cabling Topology

The overall topology of a 10BASE-T LAN is a tree of stars, as illustrated in Figure 1. The LAN in Figure 2 is constructed around four hubs and is a single collision domain. Each segment is at most 100 meters in length. The longest path throught the network passes through four hubs and crosses five sements.

An unbroken 100-meter run often is used to connect two hubs or to join a hub to a bridge. However, a horizontal cable run between a workstation and a hub normally is broken up into pieces, as Figure 3 shows. At the station end, a NIC is connected to a telecommunications outlet by a short cable called a patch cord. With the wiring closet at the other end, patch cords are used to complete the connection to a specific hub or switch.

A patch cord also is called a patch cable or a jumper cord. A patch cord that connects a user’s computer to an outlet often is called a work area cable. A Fiber Optic Patch Cord that connects a device to a hub or switch in a wiring closet often is called an equipment cable.

A typical breakdown is 90 meters for the long run between the telecommunications outlet and patch panels in the wiring closet and up to 10 meters for the patch cords used at each end. The patch cord connection between the station and the telecommunications outlet normally is limited to a length of 3 meters, at most.

Patch panels in a wiring closet enable the connections between end-user stations and hubs or switches to be rearranged by unplugging and replugging patch cables.

The patches shown at the top of Figure 3 are called interconnects. A station is attached to a new hub by unplugging the patch cable from the old hub and plugging it into the new hub. The patches shown in the lower part of Figure 4 are called cross-connects. Cables connected to the hubs do not need to be touched. An attachment is changed by plugging one end of a patch cord into a different socket. Cross-coonects are very convenient. However, they can degrade signals since they introduce more connector hardware into the cable patch.

Fiberstore Inc is one of the renowned manufacturers, suppliers and exporters of fiber optic patch cable, such  as LC fiber optic cable, multimode fiber patch cable, single mode fiber SC to LC, custom fiber patch cables, MTP/MPO fiber patch cable, Fiber optic pigtails, and much more.  with a factory in China. With years of experience in the line of making , we are known for our outstanding performance in the industry. We have helped ourselves as one of the leading brand in China. We constantly upgrade our products to meet the international standards. We hold a team of professionals, which provides on time deliveries with high quality. Our sincerity and hard work has helped us match our quality with international standards.

RJ45 Colors and Wiring Guide Diagram TIA/EIA 568 AB

The information listed here is to assist Network Administrators in the color coding of Ethernet cables. Please be aware that modifying Ethernet cables improperly may cause loss of network
connectivity. Use this information at your own risk, and ensure all connectors and cables are modified in accordance with TIA standards.

Basic Theory: By looking at a T-568A UTP Ethernet straight-thru cable and an Ethernet crossover cable with a T-568B end, we see that the TX (transmitter) pins are connected to the corresponding RX (receiver) pins, plus to plus and minus to minus. You can also see that both the blue and brown wire pairs on pins 4, 5, 7, and 8 are not used in either standard. What you may not realize is that, these same pins 4, 5, 7, and 8 are not used or required in 100BASE-TX as well. So why bother using these wires, well for one thing its simply easier to make a connection with all the wires grouped together. Otherwise you’ll be spending time trying to fit those tiny little wires into each of the corresponding holes in the RJ-45 connector.

The T-568A standard is supposed to be used in new network installations. Most off-the-shelf Ethernet cables are still of the T-568B standard; however, it makes absolutely no functional difference in which you choose.

Both the T-568A and the T-568B standard Straight-Through cables are used most often as patch cords for your Ethernet connections. If you require a cable to connect two Ethernet devices directly together without a hub or when you connect two hubs together, you will need to use a Crossover cable instead.

A good way of remembering how to wire a Crossover Ethernet cable is to wire one end using the T-568A standard and the other end using the T-568B standard. Another way of remembering the color coding is to simply switch the Green set of wires in place with the Orange set of wires. Specifically, switch the solid Green (G) with the solid Orange, and switch the green/white with the orange/white.

How to Build an Ethernet Cable Instructions:

Pull the cable off the reel to the desired length and cut using wire cutters or scissors. If you are pulling cables through holes, it’s easier to attach the RJ-45 plugs after the cable is pulled.The total length of wire segments between a PC and a switch or between two PC’s cannot exceed 100 Meters (328 feet) for 100BASE-TX and 300 Meters for 10BASE-T.

Start on one end and strip the cable jacket off (about 1″) using a wire stripper or a knife. Be extra careful not to nick the wires, otherwise you will need to start over.

Spread, untwist the pairs, and arrange the wires in the order of the desired cable end. Flatten the end between your thumb and forefinger. Trim the ends of the wires so they are even with one another, leaving only 1/2″ in wire length. If it is longer than 1/2″ it will be out-of-spec and susceptible to crosstalk. Flatten and insure there are no spaces between wires.

Hold the RJ-45 plug with the clip facing down or away from you. Push the wires firmly into the plug. Inspect each wire is flat even at the front of the plug. Check the order of the wires. Double check again.

Check that the jacket is fitted right against the stop of the plug. Carefully hold the wire and firmly crimp the RJ-45 with the crimp tool.
Check the color orientation, check that the crimped connection is not about to come apart, and check to see if the wires are flat against the front of the plug. If even one of these are incorrect, you will have to start over. Test the Ethernet cable.

Ethernet Cable Tips:

A straight-thru cable has identical ends.
A crossover cable has different ends.
A straight-thru is used as a patch cord in Ethernet connections.
A crossover is used to connect two Ethernet devices without a hub or for connecting two hubs.
A crossover has one end with the Orange set of wires switched with the Green set.
Odd numbered pins are always striped, even numbered pins are always solid colored.
Looking at the RJ-45 with the clip facing away from you, Brown is always on the right, and pin 1 is on the left.
No more than 1/2″ of the Ethernet cable should be untwisted otherwise it will be susceptible to crosstalk.
Do not deform, do not bend, do not stretch, do not staple, do not run parallel with power cables, and do not run Ethernet cables near noise inducing components.

Source from copper & fiber optic cable manufacturers