Tag Archives: fiber optic cable

Some Fiber Optic Cable Type Introduction

FacebookTwitterGoogle+LinkedInRedditTumblrShare

Fiber optic “cable” refers to the complete assembly of fibers, other internal parts like buffer tubes, ripcords, stiffeners, strength members all included inside an outer protective covering called the jacket. Fiber optic cables come in lots of different types, depending on the number of fibers and how and where it will be installed. It is important to choose cable carefully as the choice will affect how easy the cable is to install, splice or terminate and what it will cost. Next, we will introduce 5 types of fiber optic cable in communication.

Distribution Cable

When it is necessary to run a large number of fibers through a building, distribution cable is often used. Distribution cable consists of multiple tight-buffered fibers bundled in a jacket with a strength member. Typically, these cables may also form subcables within a larger distribution cable.

Distribution Cable

Distribution cables usually end up at patch panels or communication closets, where they ar hooked into devices that communicate with separate offices or locations. These fibers are not meant to run outside of office walls or be handled beyond the intial installation, because they do not have individual jackets.

Distribution cables often carry up to 144 individual fibers, many of which may not be used immediately bu should be considered for future expansion.

Breakout Cable

Breakout cables are used to carry fibers that will have individual connectors attached, rather than being connected to a patch panel.

Breakout cables consist of two or more simplex cables bundled around a central strength member and covered with an outer jackets. Like distribution cable, breakout cables may be run through a bulding’s walls, but the individual simplex cords can then be broken out and handled individually.

As is the case with distribution cable, breakout cables may end up in communication closets, but in the case of breakout cables, users can manmually change connections. Breakout cables may also be used to connect directly to equipment.

Armored cable

Armored cable, addresses the special needs of outdoor cable that will be exposed to potential damage from equipment, rodents, and other especially harsh attacks.

Armored fiber cable consists of a cable surrounded by a steel or aluminum jacket which is then covered with a polyethylene jacket to protect it from moisture and abrasion. It may be run aerially, installed in ducts, or placed in underground enclosures with special protection from dirt and clay intrusion.

Messenger Cable

When a fiber optic cable must be suspended between two poles or other structures, the strenth members alone are not enough to support the weight of the cable. Installers must use a messenger cable, which incorporates a steel or dielectric line known as a messenger to take the weight of the cable. The cable carrying the fiber is attached to the messenger by a thin web an hangs below it.

Also called Figure 8 Fiber Optic cable for the appearance of its cross section, messenger cable greatly speeds up installation of aerial cable by eliminating the need to lash a cable to a pre-run messenger line.

In applications that will run near power lines, the dielectric messenger is ofen used to minimize the risk of energizing the cable through induced current, which is created when the electrical field from a high voltage alternating current line expands and contracts over a nearby conductor. If a conductive cable is close enough to the alternating current, the induced current may be srong enough to injure someone working near the cable.

It’s a good practice, in fact, to use dielectric strength members wherever tension considerations permit, as this will help avoid any potential conductivity problems in the cable.

Hybrid cable

Hybrid cable, as applied to fiber optics, combines multimode and single-mode fibers in one cable. Hybrid cable should not be confused with composite cable, although the terms have been used interchangeably in the past.

FiberStore is one of the industry’s fastest growing fiber optic cable manufacturer, specializing in providing quality, cost-effective retailing, wholesale and OEM fiber optic products. For more information on bulk fiber optic cable and customization service, please email to sales@fs.com or visit fs.com.

Two Basic Types Of Fiber Optic Cable Construction

Based on 900um tight buffered fiber and 250um coated fiber there are two basic types of fiber optic cable constructions – Tight Buffered Cable and Loose Tube Cable.

Loose Buffer

A loose buffer’s inner diameter is much larger than a fiber’s outer diameter. Two major advantages from this design are perfect fiber isolation from mechanical forces (within given range) and protection from moisture. The first advantage is due to mechanical dead zone. A force imposed on a buffer does not affect the fiber until this force becomes large enough to straighten the fiber inside the buffer. A loose buffer can be easily filled with a water-blocking gel, which provides its second advantage. In addition, a loose buffer can accommodate several fibers, thus reducing the cost of the cable. On the other hand, this type of cable cannot be installed vertiacally and its end preparation for connectorization (splicing and termination) is labour-intensive. Conseuqently, the loose buffer type of cable is used mostly in outdoor installations because it provides stable and reliable transmission over a wide range of temperatures, mechanical stress, and other environment conditions.

Loose tube structure isolates the fibers from the cable structure. This is a big advantage in handling thermal and other stresses encountered outdoors, which is why most loose tube fiber optic cables are built for outdoor applications. In outside application, ADSS Cable is the special loose tube cable.

Loose-tube cables typically are used for outside-plant installation in aerial, duct and direct-buried applications.

loose tube cable

Structure of a Loose Tube Cable

Elements in a loose tube fiber optic cable:

1. Multiple 250um coated bare fibers (in loose tube)
2. One or more loose tubes holding 250um bare fibers. Loose tubes strand around the central strength member.
3. Moisture blocking gel in each loose tube for water blocking and protection of 250um fibers
4. Central strength member (in the center of the cable and is stranded around by loose tubes)
5. Aramid Yarn as strength member
6. Ripcord (for easy removal of outer jacket)
7. Outer jacket (Polyethylene is most common for outdoor cables because of its moisture resistant, abrasion resistant and stable over wide temperature range characteristics. )

Tight Buffer

A tight buffer’s inner diameter is equal to the fiber’s coating diameter, as illustrated in Figure 2.33. Its primary advantage is ists ability to keep the cable operational despite a break in the fiber. Since a buffer holds a fiber firmly, a small separation of the fiber ends won’t interrupt the service completely, althought it will definitely degrade signal quality. That is why the military was the first customer and still is the largest for this type of fiber cable. A tight buffer is rugeed, allowing a smaller bend radius. Since each buffer contains only one fiber and there is no gel to be removed, it is easy to prepare this cable for connectorization. Cables having a tight buffer can be installed vertically. In general, tight buffer cables are more sensitive to temperature, mechanical and water impacts than the loose buffer cables; hence, they are recommended mostly for indoor applications. On the other hand, tight buffer cables designed for special applications (such as military and undersea are the strongest cable available.

Tight buffered cables are mostly built for indoor applications, although some tight buffered cables have been built for outdoor applications too. Here we recommend you a good site to buy fiber optic cable, fiberstore is a fantastic selection of fiber optic cable, including simplex,duplex,tight buffered,breakout, breakout,  plastic fiber optic  cable etc. More information want to know, search fiberstore on Google.

Structure of a Tight Buffered Cable

outdoor cable

Elements in a tight buffered fiber optic cable

1. Multiple 900um tight buffered fibers (stranded around the central strength member)
2. Central strength member (in the center of the cable)
3. Aramid Yarn (trade name Kevlar, Kevlar was developed by Dupont) (wrapped around the fibers, for physical protection and cable pulling)
4. Ripcord (for easy removal of outer jacket)
5. Outer jacket (also called sheath, PVC is most common for indoor cables because of its flexible, fire-retardant and easy extrusion characteristics. )

Fiberstore specializes in fiber optic cable assemblies and fiber optic network devices manufacturing, we are known as the fiber optic cable manufacturer for the excellent products quality, competitive prices, fast delivery and good service. We not only offer bulk fiber optic cable assemblies to some world leading companies in this industry, but we also cooperate with many other companies from all over the world and support these partners to win in the market. We are professional China fiber optic company.

The types of Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber optic cables are the medium of choice in tele communications infrastructure, enabling the transmission of high-speed voice, video, and data traffic in enterprise and service provider networks. Depending on the type of application and the reach to be achieved, various types of fiber may be considered and deployed.

Multimode vs. Single-Mode Cable

Multimode cable has a large-diameter core and multiple pathways of light. The two most commnon are 50 micron and 62.5 micron.

Multimode fiber optic cable can be used for most general data and voice fiber applications, such as bringing fiber to the desktop, adding segments to an existing network, and in smaller applications such as alarm systems. Both 50- and 62.5-micron cable feature the same cladding diameter of 125 microns, but 50-micron fiber cable features a smaller core (the light-carrying portion of the fiber). Also, both also use either LED or laser light sources.

Although both can be used in the same way, 50-micron cable is recommended for premise applications (backbone, horizontal,and intrabuilding connections) and should be considered for any new construction and installations. The big difference between the two is that 50-micron cable provides longer link lengths and/or higher speeds, particularly in the 850-nm wavelength. 50 micron OM4 fiber optic cable now save up to 30% off sale in our store, if have interest, search Fiberstore on google.

Single-mode cable has a small 8–10-micron glass core and only one pathway of light. With only a single wavelength of light passing through its core, single-mode cable realigns the light toward the center of the core instead of simply bouncing it off the edge of the core as multimode does.

Single-mode cable provides 50 times more distance than multimode cable does. Consequently, single-mode cable is typically used in high-bandwidth applications and in long-haul network connections spread out over extended areas, including cable television and campus backbone applications. Telcos use it for connections between switching offices. Single-mode cable also provides higher bandwidth, so you can use a pair of single-mode fiber strands full-duplex for up to twice the throughput of multimode fiber.

Fiber Optic Cable

Simplex vs. duplex Patch cables

Multimode and single-mode patch cables can be simplex or duplex.

Simplex has one fiber, while duplex zipcord has two fibers joined with a thin web. Simplex (also known as single strand) and duplex zipcord cables are tight-buffered and jacketed, with Kevlar strength members. Because simplex fiber optic cable consists of only one fiber link, you should use it for applications that only require one-way data transfer. For instance, an interstate trucking scale that sends the wieght of the truck to a monitoring station or an oil line monitor that sends data about oil flow to a central location.

Use duplex multimode or single-mode fiber optic cable for applications that require simultaneous, bidirectional data transfer. Workstations, fiber switches and servers, Ethernet switches, backbone ports, and similar hardware require duplex cable.

Indoor/Outdoor Cable

Indoor/outdoor cable uses dry-block technology to seal ruptures against moisture seepage and gel-filled buffer tubes to halt moisture migration. Comprised of a ripcord, core binder, a flame-retardant layer, overcoat, aramid yarn, and an outer jacket, it is designed for aerial, duct, tray, and riser applications.

PVC (Riser) vs. Plenum-Rated

PVC cable (also called riser-rated cable even though not all PVC cable is riser-rated) features an outer polyvinyl chloride jacket that gives off toxic fumes when it burns. It can be used for horizontal and vertical runs, but only if the building features a contained ventilation system. Plenum can replace riser, but riser cannot be used in plenum spaces.

“Riser-rated” means that the jacket contains PVC. The cable carries a CMR (communications riser) rating and is not for use in plenums.

Distribution-Style vs. Breakout-Style

Distribution-style cables have several tight-buffered fibers bundled under the same jacket with Kevlar or fiberglass rod reinforcement.These cables are small in size and are used for short, dry conduit runs, in either riser or plenum applications. The fibers can be directly terminated, but because the fibers are not individually reinforced, these cables need to be broken out with a “breakout box” or terminated inside a patch panel or junction box.

Breakout-style cables are made of several simplex cables bundled together, making a strong design that is larger than distribution cables. Breakout cables are suitable for conduit runs and riser and plenum applications.  Fiberstore supply high quality Multi-purpose Breakout Cables which facilitates easy installation of fiber-optic connectors. Buy Bulk Fiber Optic Cable on our worldwide online store with your confidence.

Loose-Tube vs. Tight-Buffered Fiber Optic Cable

There are two styles of fiber optic cable construction: loose tube and tight buffered. Both contain some type of strengthening member, such as aramid yarn, stainless steel wire strands, or even gel-filled sleeves. But each is designed for very different environments.

Loose-tube cable is specifically designed for harsh outdoor environments. It protects the fiber core, cladding, and coating by enclosing everything within semi-rigid protective sleeves or tubes. Many loose-tube cables also have a water-resistant gel that surrounds the fibers. This gel helps protect them from moisture, which makes loose-tube cable great for harsh, high-humidity environments where water or condensation can be a problem. The gel-filled tubes can also expand and contract with temperature changes. There are many fiber cable types of loose tube, for example, ADSS Cable is used by electrical utility companies as a communications medium.

But gel-filled loose-tube cable is not the best choice when cable needs to be routed around multiple bends, which is often true in indoor applications. Excess cable strain can force fibers to emerge from the gel.

Tight-buffered cable, in contrast, is optimized for indoor applications. Because it’s sturdier than loose-tube cable, it’s best suited for moderate-length LAN/WAN connections or long indoor runs. It’s easier to install, as well, because there’s no messy gel to clean up and it doesn’t require a fan-out kit for splicing or termination. You can install connectors directly to each fiber.

Low-loss Connectivity For Multimode Fiber Applications

Optical insertion loss budgets are now one of the top concerns among data center managers, especially in today’s large virtualized server environments with longer-distance 40 and 100 gigabit Ethernet (GbE) backbone switch-to-switch deployments for networking and storage area networks (SANs). In fact, loss budgets need to be carefully considered during the early design stages of any data center—staying within the loss budget is essential for ensuring that optical data signals can properly transmit from one switch to another without high bit error rates and performance degradation.

low-loss-multifiber-connectivity

With the length and type of the fiber optic cable and number of connectors and splices all contributing to the link loss, data center managers are faced with the challenge of calculating each connection point and segment within their fiber channels. Multi-fiber push on (MPO) or mechanical transfer push on (MTP) connectors are rapidly becoming the norm for switch-to-switch connections due to their preterminated plug and play benefits and ease of scalability from 10 to 40 and 100 gigabit speeds. Unfortunately, typical MPO MTP module insertion loss may not allow for having more than two mated connections in a fiber channel, which significantly limits design flexibility and data center management. Low loss, rather than standard loss, MPO/MTP connectors better support multiple mated connections for flexibility over a wide range of distances and configurations while remaining within the loss budget.

MTP LC

Typical MPO/MTP connectors, which are required for 40 and 100 GbE eployments have insertion loss values that range from 0.3 dB to 0.5 dB. Typical LC multimode fiber connectors have loss values that range from 0.3 dB to 0.5 dB. While better than the allowed 0.75 dB TIA value, typical connector loss still limits how many connections can be deployed in 10, 40 and 100 GbE channels. For example, with an LC connector loss of 0.5 dB, a 300-meter 10 GbE channel over OM3 fiber can include only three connectors with no headroom. Having just two or three connections prevents the use of cross connects at both interconnection (MDA) and access switches (HDA).

Due to improvements in connector technology and manufacturing techniques, Fiberstore has succeeded in lowering the loss to 0.20 dB for MTP connectors and to 0.15 dB (0.1 dB typical) for LC and SC connectors, well below the industry standard of 0.75 dB and loss values offered by other manufacturers.

For 10 GbE, Fiberstore low loss LC fiber jumpers offer a loss of 0.15 dB (typical 0.1 dB) and Fiberstore low loss plug and play MTP to LC or SC modules offer a loss of 0.35 dB (typical 0.25 dB). For 40 and 100 GbE, MTP to MTP pass-through adapter plates and MTP fiber jumpers offer a loss of 0.2 dB. These lower loss values allow data center managers to deploy more connection points in fiber channels, enabling the use of distribution points or cross connects that significantly increase flexible configuration options.

Table 2 below provides an example of how many connections can be deployed in 10, 40 and 100 GbE channels over OM3 and OM4 multimode fiber using low loss MTP to LC modules for 10 GbE and low loss MTP to MTP pass-through adapters for 40 and 100 GbE versus standard loss solutions.

As indicated in Table 2, the use of low loss connectivity allows for four connections in a 10 GbE OM3 or OM4 channel compared to just two when using standard loss connectivity. Low loss connectivity allows for eight connections in a 100- meter 40/100 GbE channel over OM3 versus just four connections using standard loss, and five connections in a 150-meter 40/100 GbE channel over OM4 fiber compared to just two connections using standard loss. Deploying cross connects between interconnection and access switches requires a minimum of four connections, depending on the configuration. Therefore, cross connects in a full-distance optical channel are simply not feasible without low loss connectivity.

Figures 6, 7 and 8 shows some example scenarios for deploying cross connects in 10 GbE and 40/100 GbE channels over OM3 and OM4 fiber using Fiberstore low loss fiber connectivity. In Figure 6, all changes are made at the cross connect with LC fiber jumpers. The switches remain separate and the permanent MTP trunk fiber cables need only be installed once. The cross connect can be placed anywhere within the channel to maximize ease of deployment and manageability.

MTP Trunk Cable

Figure 7. shows an OM3 40/100 GbE channel with six Fiberstore low loss MTP-MTP pass-through adapter plates and low loss trunks. This scenario offers 0.4 dB of headroom and provides even better manageability and security. All changes are made at the cross connects via MTP fiber jumpers, switches remain separate, and the MTP trunk cables need only be installed once.Once again, the cross connects can be located anywhere in the data center for maximum flexibility. This allows for one-time deployment of high fiber-count cabling from the cross connect at the interconnection switch to the cross connect at the access switch. Adding additional access switches can be accomplished with short fiber runs from the cross connect.

Figure 7: For maximum flexibility, manageability and security, up to eight low loss MTP-MTP pass-through adapters can be deployed using low loss trunks in a 100-meter 40/100 GbE switch-to-switch backbone channel over OM3 fiber.

If the loss budget does not permit deploying six MTP to MTP adapters, one option is to deploy MTP to LC or MTP to MTP jumpers from the cross connect to the equipment, depending on the equipment interface. For example, if using OM4 fiber to extend the channel distance to 150 meters, up to five Low Loss MTP-MTP pass through adapters can be deployed as shown in Figure 8.

The Characteristics Of Single mode Fiber and Multimode Fiber

Fiber optic cable is the most common and important transmission medium in optical communication system. It consists of a single glass core, the cladding layer close to the core, a primary coating layer and a protective layer composed of plastic cap.(Cylindrical fiber, the core, cladding and coating layers composed of three parts.) Core and the cladding layer consists of two different optical properties of the medium constituting the medium refractive index of light than the interior of a surrounding medium high refractive index. In the periphery of the package as the cover layer of opaque material, as the light is prevented from escaping from the surface during interspersed. Fiber optic cable has two types: single mode fiber and multimode fiber.

Multimode Fiber

When the geometry of the fiber is much larger than the wavelength of light (about lμm), optical transmission process will be a significant presence of dozens or even hundreds of transport modes, such as the fiber is called multimode fiber.

Due to different propagation modes having different phase propagation velocity, thus, long-distance transmission is generated through mode dispersion (after long-distance transmission delay difference is generated, resulting in the optical pulse broadening). Side mode dispersion will narrow the bandwidth of multimode fiber, the transmission capacity is reduced, and therefore, multi-mode fiber is only suitable for low speed, short-distance optical fiber communication, data communication is currently a large number of multi-mode fiber local area network.

Main products and application performance of multimode fiber in the following table:

Multimode Fiber
The related products about 62.5/125mm multimode fiber from fs.com, it is below:

Duplex OM1 62.5 125 Fiber Patch Cable

The product about  50/125mm OM2 multimode fiber

Duplex OM2 50 125 Fiber Patch Cable

Single Mode Fiber 

When the geometry of the fiber is small, and the wavelength of the same order as the core diameter in the range of 4-10μm, the optical fiber allows only one mode (basic mode) in which the transmission, the remaining high-order mode are all turned off, so that said single mode fiber. Avoid the mode dispersion single mode fiber, suitable for large-capacity long-distance transmission.

IEC 60793-2 and IEC 60793-2-50 single mode fiber will be divided into B1.1, B1.2, B1.3, B2, B4, B5, B6 and other categories, ITU-T also G.652, G .653, G.654, G.655, G.656, G.657 and other recommendations were standardized definition and characteristics of various single mode fiber, and each part of the GB / T 9771 with reference to IEC 60793-2-50 ITU-T G.65x series formulation.

A given type of single mode fiber, the mode field diameter by (also called effective area), the dispersion coefficient, dispersion slope, wavelength cutoff adapted to optimize the parameters, and access ways for different applications.

Related Article: What’s the Difference: Single Mode vs Multimode Fiber

Basic Knowledge About Fiber Optic Cable

From data and voice to security and video conferencing, many of today’s IT infrastructure services rely on fiber optics to transmit information faster, farther, and in greater amounts than ever before. So fiber optics are more and more popularity in our internet. This post will try to answer some of the basic questions about fiber optic cable.

What Is Fiber Optic Cable?

A fiber optic cable is a network cable that contains strands of glass fibers inside an insulated casing. These cables are designed for long distance and very high bandwidth (gigabit speed) network communications.

Fiber Optic Cable

Single Mode vs. Multimode Fiber Optic Cable

Single mode fiber gives you a higher transmission rate and up to 50 times more distance than multimode, but it also costs more. Single-mode fiber has a much smaller core than multimode fiber-typically 5 to 10 microns. Only a single lightwave can be transmitted at a given time. The small core and single lightwave virtually eliminate any distortion that could result from overlapping light pulses, providing the least signal attenuation and the highest transmission speeds of any fiber cable type.

Multimode fiber gives you high bandwidth at high speeds over long distances. Lightwave is dispersed into numerous paths, or modes, as they travel through the cable’s core. Typical multimode fiber core diameters are 50, 62.5, and 100 micrometers. However, in long cable runs (greater than 3000 feet (914.4 ml), multiple paths of light can cause signal distortion at the receiving end, resulting in an unclear and incomplete data transmission. For example, you can try to compare the single mode duplex fiber vs multimode duplex fiber optic cable, and well know they are different.

The Relationship between Fiber Optic Cable and Fiber Patch Cord

A fiber patch cord is a fiber optic cable capped at either end with connectors that allow it to be rapidly and conveniently connected to CATV, an optical switch or other telecommunication equipment. Its thick layer of protection is used to connect the optical transmitter, receiver, and the terminal box. This is known as “interconnect-style cabling”.

What Types of Connectors Should be Used for Fiber Optic Cable?

There are a number of connector styles on the market including LC, FC, MT-RJ, ST, and SC. There are also MT/MTP style connectors that will accommodate up to 12 strands of fiber and take up far less space than other connectors. This connector is intended for use with indoor loose tube no-gel cable constructions. However, the most popular connectors are SC, which pushes in then click when seated, and ST, also known as bayonet style, that is pushed in and twisted to lock. That should be a consideration when making product selections.

What kind of jacket rating and type do you require?

Fiber cable jackets come in many styles. As an example, fiber can be Indoor only, Outdoor only, Indoor/Outdoor, Tactical and it can also have Plenum or Riser ratings.

Jacket color is relatively standardized.

a) Multimode = Orange

b) 50/125um 10G = Aqua

c) Single Mode = Yellow

d) Indoor/Outdoor or Outdoor = Black

e) Custom jacket colors are also available for indoor fiber cables

Conclusion

Whether you are working in a residential or commercial environment. FiberStore offers a wide variety of fiber cables, and other fiber optic cables related products, such as fiber patch cable, fiber optic connector, fiber transceiver. No matter how complex or simple your installation needs are, we have the expertise to provide you with the right products and information for both your fiber optic cable, custom fiber optic assembly and fiber optic connector needs. If you wanna customize your fiber optic products, pls give us a call, our Tel is  +86 (755) 8300 3611 or sent your detail requirement email to sales@fs.com. Thank you!

Choose The LC Fiber Patch Cables

:: A Small History of LC Connectors

The LC connector was  a evolutionary approach to experiencing this goals of SFF (Small Form Factor) connector. The LC connector utilizes the traditional aspects of a SC duplex connector having independent ceramic ferrules and housings with the overall size scaled down by one half.

The LC family of connectors includes a stand-alone simplex design, a behind-the-wall (BTW) connector, and also the duplex connector available in both single mode and multimode tolerances, all designed while using RJ-style latch.

The LC connector is a universal connector. It is available in simplex and duplex configurations and is half how big the SC and utilizes a 1.25mm ferule. The LC is highly favored for single mode and is easily terminated with an adhesive. They’re actively replacing the SC connectors in corporate environments due to their smaller size.

:: The Most Critical Parameters You Should Be Looking

Many manufacturers make LC optic fiber patch cables, but they are not all created equal. Here are the most critical optical performance parameters you should be looking closely. This fiber optic cable manufacturer provide the detail fiber optic cable specifications, you can reference its specs.

A) Single mode LC optic fiber patch cables

Single mode LC patch cords is available in several polishing favors: PC, UPC and APC.

a) PC means Physical Contact.

This is the most basic polishing. The back reflection is not too good, especially for just one mode fiber system. The rear reflection is under -45dB. Since single mode fiber systems are particularly sensitive to back reflections, we don’t recommend using PC polish. It is best to choose a UPC polish for single mode LC fibers.

b) UPC stands for Ultra Physical Contact.

It supplies a better back reflection performance: under -50dB. While not providing the superior optical return loss performance of the APC connector – UPC connector has return loss (back reflection) characteristics that are appropriate for intraplant serial video or data transmissions.

c) APC means Angled Physical Contact.

The endface is polished precisely in an 8-degree angle to the fiber cladding to ensure that most return loss is reflected into the cladding where it can’t hinder the transmitted signal or damage the laser source.

As an effect, APC connectors offer a superior RL performance of -65 dB. APC LC optic fiber patch cables are best for high bandwidth applications and long haul links because it provides the lowest return loss (RL) characteristics of connectors now available.

However, it is extremely hard to terminate an LC APC connector at 8 degrees with any consistent degree of success within the field.

B) Multimode LC fiber patch cables

Multimode LC optic fiber patch cords have only one sort of polishing: PC (Physical Contact) polishing.

However, there are at least three kinds of common multimode fibers to select from. 62.5/125um multimode fiber (also called OM1), 50/125um multimode fiber (also known as OM2), and 10Gig laser optimized 50/125um multimode fiber (also known as OM3 multimode fiber OR OM4 multimode fiber ).

Among multimode LC fiber patch cables, usually you only care about the insertion loss which needs to be no more than 0.3 to 0.5dB.

:: Which kind of LC Patch Cords Do you want?

LC fiber patch cables are available in a variety of configurations, such as LC to FC, LC to ST, LC to SC, LC to LC, LC to MTRJ, and many more. LC fibers can be found in simplex fiber cable and duplex fiber cable configurations.

Different Single Mode and Multimode Fiber Types

Fiber optic cables are the medium of choice in telecommunications infrastructure, enabling the transmission of high-speed voice, video, and data traffic in enterprise and service provider networks. Depending on the type of application and the reach to be achieved, various types of fiber may be considered and deployed, such as single mode fiber type and multimode duplex fiber.

Fiber optic cables come in several different configurations, each ideally suited to a different use or application. Early fiber designs that are still used today include single mode fiber type and multimode fiber. Since Bell Laboratories invented the concept of application-specific fibers in the mid-1990s, fiber designs for specific network applications have been introduced. These new fiber designs – used primarily for the transmission of communication signals – include Non-Zero Dispersion Fiber (NZDF), Zero Water Peak Fiber (ZWPF), 10-Gbps laser optimized multimode fiber, and fibers designed specifically for submarine applications. Specialty fiber designs, such as dispersion compensating fibers and erbium doped fibers, perform functions that complement the transmission fibers. The differences among the different transmission fiber types result in variations in the range and the number of different wavelengths or channels at which the light is transmitted or received, the distances those signals can travel without being regenerated or amplified, and the speeds at which those signals can travel.

There are two different types of fiber optic cable: multimode and single mode fiber type (MMF and SMF). Both are used in a broad range of telecommunications and data networking applications. These fiber types have dominated the commercial fiber market since the 1970’s. The distinguishing difference, and the basis for the naming of the fibers, is in the number of modes allowed to propagate in the core of a fiber. The “mode” is an allowable path for the light to travel down a fiber. A multimode fiber allows many light propagation paths, while a single mode fiber allows only one light path.

In multimode fiber, the time it takes for light to travel through a fiber is different for each mode resulting in a spreading of the pulse at the output of the fiber referred to as intermodal dispersion. The difference in the time delay between the modes is called Differential Mode Delay (DMD). Intermodal dispersion limits multimode fiber bandwidth. This is significant because a fiber’s bandwidth determines its information carrying capacity, i.e., how far a transmission system can operate at a specified bit error rate.

The optical fiber guides the light launched into the fiber core (Figure 1). The cladding is a layer of material that surrounds the core. The cladding is designed so that the light launched into the core is contained in the core. When the light launched into the core strikes the cladding, the light is reflected from the core-to-cladding interface. The condition of total internal reflection (when all of the light launched into the core remains in the core) is a function of both the angle at which the light strikes the core-to-cladding interface and the index of refraction of the materials. The index of refraction (n) is a dimensionless number that characterizes the speed of light in a specific media relative to the speed of light in a vacuum. To confine light within the core of an optical fiber, the index of refraction for the cladding (n1) must be less than the index of refraction for the core (n2).

Fibers are classified in part by their core and cladding dimensions. Single mode duplex fiber have a much smaller core diameter than multimode duplex fiber optic cable. However, the Mode Field Diameter (MFD) rather than the core diameter is used in single mode fiber specifications. The MFD describes the distribution of the optical power in the fiber by providing an “equivalent” diameter, sometimes referred to as the spot size. The MFD is always larger than the core diameter with nominal values ranging between 8-10 microns, while single mode fiber core diameters are approximately 8 microns or less. Unlike single mode fiber type, multimode fiber is usually referred to by its core and cladding diameters. For example, fiber with a core of 62.5 microns and a cladding diameter of 125 microns is referred to as a 62.5/125 micron fiber. Popular multimode product offerings have core diameters of 50 microns or 62.5 microns with a cladding diameter of 125 microns. Single mode fibers also have 125 micron cladding diameters.

A single mode fiber, having a single propagation mode and therefore no intermodal dispersion, has higher bandwidth than multimode fiber. This allows for higher data rates over much longer distances than achievable with multimode fiber. Consequently, long haul telecommunications applications only use single mode fiber type, and it is deployed in nearly all metropolitan and regional configurations. Long distance carriers, local Bells, and government agencies transmit traffic over single mode fiber laid beneath city streets, under rural cornfields, and strung from telephone poles. Although single mode duplex fiber has higher bandwidth, multimode fiber supports high data rates at short distances. The smaller core diameter of single mode duplex fiber also increases the difficulty in coupling sufficient optical power into the fiber. Relaxed tolerances on optical coupling requirements afforded by multimode fiber enable the use of transmitter packaging tolerances that are less precise, thereby allowing lower cost transceivers or lasers. As a result, multimode duplex fiber optic cable has dominated in shorter distance and cost sensitive LAN applications.

NASA and Astro Technology collaborate to Develop Offshore Fiber-Optic Tehnology

It is recorded that the Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has cooperated and developed a new fiber optic monitoring system this year on two oil platforms offshore West Africa.

The new system Tendon Tension Monitoring System (TTMS) utilizes a fiber optic strain gauge system and a series of sensor clamps to measure the tension on subsea risers and pipelines. It is installed in March on two platforms at the Okume complex for Hess Corporation’s subsidiary Hess-Equatorial Guinea.

According to Nasa, the system can sense any stresses along the platform’s four legs and streams the data in real time, allowing operators to make alterations required to maintain platform’s stability.

During the offshore research, the team attached 16 clamps to two separate drill platforms by commercial divers, using fiber optic cables to send real-time data streaming to a control room on each drill platform.

Astro Technology is specialized in instrumentation and monitoring technologies with a focus on real-time fiber optic sensory systems for oil and gas, has successfully used fiber optic monitoring systems at depths of up to 7,500 feet. This technology was developed as a result of a space Act Agreement, which permits NASA to partner with outside organizations to bring NASA expertise, assets or information to a wide community. Space Act Agreement, which date back to 1958, allows NASA to work with a broad spectrum of partners from all public and private sector discipline, according to NASA’s website.

Nasa chief technologist, Mason Peck, said: “What we learn from testing this technology on the oil platforms will benefit a broad range of terrestrial and space applications, and shows Nasa’s technology investments support America’s future in space and improve our lives here on Earth.”

Published by FiberStore, industry news – www.fs.com

What Is The Low Smoke Zero Halogen Cable?

From FiberStore,we will answer to you what is the Low Smoke Zero Halogen Cable. Low Smoke Zero Halogen(LSZH) cable is free of halogen (F, Cl, Br, I, At), lead-free environmental substances such as cadmium, chromium and mercury in the plastic material made ??of combustion does not emit toxic smoke (such as: hydrogen halide,carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, etc.) environmentally friendly cable. LSZH cable jacketing is composed of thermoplastic or thermoset compounds that emit limited smoke and no halogen when exposed to high sources of heat.Less toxic and slower to ignite, they are a good choice for many internal installations. This cable may be run through risers directly to a convenient network or splicing closet for interconnection.

Why the halogen is dangerous?

When products containing halogens are burned, they produce very dangerous gasses. Public awareness of these dangers began after several tragic fires claimed the lives of victims who inhaled deadly halogenated fumes.Many organizations, local authorities and governments have undertaken broad initiatives to eliminate the production of halogenated material. In Asia, the United Kingdom and many European communities, the use of wire and cable containing halogens is highly regulated, and in some areas completely prohibited.

Halogenated compounds are normally very stable. When they burn, however, the halogens separate and become highly reactive, forming very toxic, extremely dangerous and corrosive gasses that can significantly damage organic, inorganic and metallic materials. The hydrogen chlorine gas produced from burning PVC, for example, is similar to mustard gas.

Fires involving the combustion of halogenated materials can be devastating. Inhalation of dangerous fumes can cause serious harm or even death to humans. Acid rain and fumes can quickly destroy expensive industrial and computer equipment.

Why use halogen free cable?

Low smoke and halogen free cabling is becoming increasingly necessary to protect against the risk of toxic gas emissions during a fire. Standard RG cables contain halogen insulation. Halogen insulation was first used because it helps prevent cables from fire, but if it does ignite, the resulting fumes are highly toxic and a major risk, both to human life and to circuitry in place: critical, for example, in an aircraft.

Halogen free cables are engineered and designed so that emissions during a fire offer low toxicity and low smoke. This type of cabling is increasingly of relevance in public sector housing and major new developments. It could be increasingly worthwhile and of interest when it comes to elderly housing too, where items such as disabled stair lifts are in use and the risk of additional complications as a result of fire significant.

Halogen free or zero halogen cabling is used in many areas of the cable and wiring industry, including aircraft, rail and construction. Used to protect wiring, it is proven to limit the amount of toxic gas emitted when it comes into contact with heat.

For more fiber optic cable information,please visit fs.com or contact us.