An Overview Of The Armored Fiber Cable

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Fiber optic cables form one of the most important parts of the networking industry today. Fiber cables are composed of one or more transparent optical fibers enclosed in a protective covering and strength members. Fiber cables are used to transmit data by the mode of light. Various types of fiber cables available are multimode duplex fiber cables, single mode simplex fiber cables, single mode duplex fiber cables, armored fiber cables and plastic optical fiber cables.

What is Armored Fiber Cable

Armored Fiber Cable, is outside the optical fiber is then wrapped in a layer of protective of “armor”, is mainly used to meet the requirements of customers rodent, moisture proof, etc. Armored cable is a power cable made up by assembling two or more electrical conductors, generally held together with an overall sheath. This electrical cable with high protective covering is used for transmission of electrical power, especially for underground wiring needs. However, these cables may be installed as permanent wiring within buildings, buried in the ground, run overhead, or may even be kept exposed. They are available as single conductor cable as well as multi-conductor cables.

Common Armored Fiber Cable

Armored fiber optic cables are often installed in a network for added mechanical protection, as they have extra reinforcing in the cable housing to prevent damage. Two types of armored fiber optic cables exist: interlocking and corrugated. Interlocking armor is an aluminum armor that is helically wrapped around the cable and found in indoor and indoor/outdoor cables. It offers ruggedness and superior crush resistance. Corrugated armor is a coated steel tape folded around the cable longitudinally. It is found in outdoor cables and offers extra mechanical and rodent protection.

Armored Flame Retardant Fiber Optic Cable for Indoor/Outdoor Applications

Indoor/outdoor fiber optic cables have been pretty hot in the last several years and there are good reasons for this. For service providers, indoor/outdoor fiber cables really present big time and cost savings. This cable design can come from the outdoor environment and enter a building without the need to switch cable designs to have the flame retardance required indoors. This dual purpose cable can reduce the cost of the terminations and related labor to change cable designs.

The development of dry water blocking core technology has also helped indoor/outdoor fiber cable development. This dry core technology uses water swellable materials to block the flow of moisture in the longitudinal direction.We also provide other types of fiber optic cable,such as the waterproof cable,waterproof fiber pigtail cable can be used in harsh environment. It is mainly used in outdoor connection of the optical transmitter. Waterproof fiber pigtail is designed with a stainless steel strengthened waterproof unit and armored outdoor PE jacketed cables.

Note:If you want to know more detail fiber optic cable specifications of armored fiber cable,you can visit the armored fiber cable products website in FiberStore.Every fiber optic cables have the different specifications,and if you have some questions of fiber optic cable specifications,pls contact us.

Some Tips To Choice Simplex And Duplex Fiber Cable

When purchasing a fiber optic cable, it is important to understand the different varieties of core characteristics that are available within the cable itself. Each of these different characteristics will have different effects on your ability to transmit information reliably, and these different characteristics also affect the cabling project. You must search the cost of fiber optic cable if you bought the cable. Now, let’s take a look at the most common fiber optic cables.

Simplex Fiber Cable
A simplex fiber cable consists of a single strand of glass of plastic fiber, and is used for applications that only require one-way data transfer. Simplex fiber is most often used where only a single transmit and receive line is required between devices or when a multiplex data signal is used (bi-directional communication over a single fiber). Simplex fiber is available in singlemode and multimode. For example, an interstate trucking scale that sends the weight of the truck to a monitoring station or an oil line monitor that sends data about oil flow to a central location.

Duplex Fiber Cable
A duplex fiber cable consists of two strand fibers of glass or plastic. Typically found in a “zipcord”(side-by-side) construction format, this cable is most often used for duplex communication between devices where a separate transmit and receive are required. Duplex fiber is available in singlemode and multimode. Use multimode duplex fiber optic cable or single mode duplex fiber for applications that require simultaneous, bi-directional data transfer. Workstations, fiber switches and servers, fiber modems, and similar hardware require duplex fiber cable.

Cable Design Criteria For The Pulling Strength,Water Protection,Fiber Code Ratings

Pulling Strength: Some cable is simply laid into cable trays or ditches. So pull strength is not too important. But other cable may be pulled through 2 km or more of conduit. Even with lots of cable lubricant, pulling tension can be high. Most cables get their strength from an agamid fiber, a unique polymer fiber that is very strong but does not stretch – so pulling on it will not stress the other components in the cable. The simplest simplex cable has a pull strength of 100-200 pounds, while outside plant cable may have a specification of over 800 pounds.

Water Protection: Outdoors, every cable must be protected from water or moisture. It starts with a moisture resistant jacket, usually PE (polyethylene), and a filling of water-blocking material. The usual way is to flood the cable with a water-blocking gel. It’s effective but messy – requiring a gel remover. A newer alternative is dry water blocking using a miracle powder – the stuff developed to absorb moisture in disposable diapers. Check with your cable supplier to see if they offer it.

Fire Code Ratings: Every cable installed indoors must meet fire codes. That means the jacket must be rated for fire resistance, with ratings for general use, riser (a vertical cable feeds flames more than horizontal) and plenum (for installation in air-handling areas. Most indoor cables use PVC (polyvinyl chloride) jacketing for fire retardance. In the United States, all premises cables must carry identification and flammability ratings per the NEC (National Electrical Code) paragraph 770.

FiberStore is one of the industry’s fastest growing fiber optic cable manufacturer, specializing in providing quality, cost-effective retailing, wholesale and OEM fiber optic products. For more information on Simplex Fiber Cable or Duplex Fiber Cable and customization service, please email to sales@fs.com or visit fs.com.

Simplex Fiber Cable and Duplex Fiber Cable

Relationship Between The Fiber Optics And Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber Optic Cable:

In fiber optic cable, optical fibers carry digital data signals in the form of modulated pulses of light. This is a relatively safe way to send data because no electrical impulses are carried over the fiber optic cable. This means that fiber-optic cable cannot be tapped and the data stolen, which is possible with any copper-based cable carrying data in the form of electronic signals.

Fiber optic cable is good for very high-speed, high-capacity data transmission because of the lack of attenuation and the purity of the signal.

A fiber optic cable can transmit information at very high speed over a very great distance. It comprises one or more optical fibers enveloped in a thermoplastic sheath for mechanical protection.

Fiber Optic Composition:

Optical fibers consist of an extremely thin cylinder of glass, called the core, surrounded by a concentric layer of glass, known as the cladding. The fibers are sometimes made of plastic. Plastic is easier to install, but cannot carry the light pulses as far as glass.

Each glass strand passes signals in only one direction. So a cable consists of two strands in separate jackets. One strand transmits and one receives. A reinforcing layer of plastic surrounds each glass strand while kevlar fibers provide strength.

Fiber Optic Technologies

Data transmission via fiber optic cable uses a laser beam, offering very little loss over great distances. The core fiber has a higher refractive index than its cladding material, keeping the light within by avoiding multiple reflection (single-mode fiber), thus acting as a wave guide.

Fiber Optic Cable Types:

Now,many fiber optic cable suppliers provide a wide range of quality optical fiber cables with detailed fiber optic cable specifications displayed for your convenience selecting.Many types of fiber optic cable including about 250um bare fiber,tight buffer,large core glass,simplex fiber optic cable,duplex fiber cable,OM3 OM4, Indoor Outdoor cable,loose tube,breakout cable,ribbon cable,LSZH cable,armored cable,ftth cable,figure 8 aerial cable,plastic cable,hybrid and composite cable,adss cable,special cable and so on.

How to Choose Fiber Optic Cable?

Fiber optic cables are preferable to electrical cables over long transmission distances or when an electromagnetic disturbance in an industrial setting might interfere with the signal. Single-mode fibers are required for high-speed, long-distance transmission, while multi-mode fibers are suitable for low speeds and short distances.

Optical fibers have found a widespread use in optical technologies. Today is electronical high-tech applications as for example the Laser Scanning Microscopy, the sensor technology, machine vision, medical laser or military technology use flexible elements in form of optical fibers for light transfer frequently. In most cases, very special requirements to design and function of optical fiber cables are put. We realize custom-made solutions regarding the design of fiber connectors and wavelength, transceiver sale mode behavior, polarization and beam profile.This enables short decisions and high flexibility in the creation of single components as well as system solutions. FiberStore wide-ranging competence is a substantial advantage in the realization of custom solutions. Want to know more customized to fiber optic products(such as 10g fiber cable). FiberStore can supply this service.

Some Question And Answer About OM4 Multimode Fiber

The burst out in demand for bandwidth in enterprise networks is driving an urgent need for higher Ethernet network speeds. There are several factors, including broadband penetration fueled by video-rich content, Data Center demands, and exponential growth in super computer and R&D computing activities.

Laser Optimized Fiber:
Laser optimized multimode fiber is recognized as the medium of choice to support these high speed data networks. With next-generation 40 and 100 Gigabit Ethernet speeds on the horizon, the industry is developing a new type of multimode fiber, called OM4, there is now a standard that is specifically targeted at this product. Prior to the standardization of OM4, these higher bandwidth fibers were sold as a part of OM3.Which will offer a minimum effective modal bandwidth of 4700 MHz-km at 850 nm, compared with 2000 MHz-km for OM3 fiber optic cable.

What is OM4 fiber?
OM4 fiber is a 50 μm laser-optimized fiber with extended bandwidth. It is designed to enhance the system cost benefits enabled by 850 nm VCSELs for existing 1 and 10 Gb/s applications as well as future 40 and 100 Gb/s systems.
OM4 fiber supports Ethernet, Fiber Channel, and OIF applications, allowing extended reach upwards of 550 meters at 10 Gb/s for ultra long building backbones and medium length campus backbones. With an Effective Modal Bandwidth (EMB, also known as laser bandwidth) of 4700 MHz-km (more than double the IEEE require-ment for 10 Gb/s 300 meter support), OM4 fiber is also especially well suited for shorter reach data center and high performance computing applications.
Why is it called OM4 and the relationship with OM1,OM2,OM3?
Multimode fibers are identified by the OM (“optical mode”) designation as outlined in the ISO/IEC 11801 standard:
• OM1, for fiber with 200/500 MHz-km over filled launch (OFL) bandwidth at 850/1300 nm (typically
62.5/125 μm fiber)
• OM2, for fiber with 500/500 MHz-km OFL bandwidth at 850/1300 nm (typically 50/125 μm fiber)
• OM3, for laser-optimized 50 μm fiber having 2000 MHz-km effective modal bandwidth (laser band-width), designed for 10 Gb/s transmission.
For many years 62.5/125 µm (OM1) and conventional 50/125 µm multi-mode fiber (OM2) were widely deployed in premises applications. These fibers easily support applications ranging from Ethernet (10 Mbit/s) to Gigabit Ethernet (1 Gbit/s) and, because of their relatively large core size, were ideal for use with LED transmitters. Newer deployments often use laser-optimized 50/125 µm multi-mode fiber (OM3). Fibers that meet this designation provide sufficient bandwidth to support 10 Gigabit Ethernet up to 300 meters. Optical fiber manufacturers have greatly refined their manufacturing process since that standard was issued and cables can be made that support 10 GbE up to 550 meters. Laser optimized multi-mode fiber (LOMMF) is designed for use with 850 nm VCSELs. Today, this evolution continues with the development of OM4 multimode fiber as the industry prepares itself for speeds of 40 and 100 Gb/s.

What are the standards that define the use of OM4 fiber?
There are a number of standards under development that will define the use of OM4 fiber for high-speed transmission. Within the TIA, work is progressing on TIA-492AAAD, which will contain the OM4 fiber performance specifications. Similarly, IEC is working in parallel to adopt equivalent specs that will be documented in theinternational fiber standard IEC 60793-2-10 as fiber type A1a.3.

What role will OM4 fiber play in next-generation speeds?
IEEE continues to work on standards for next-generation speeds, where OM4 fiber is likely to play a large role.For short reach 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s applications on multimode fiber, it appears the IEEE 802.3ba Task Force has defined a Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) solution involving already proven parallel optics technology. This will help preserve the low cost advantage of today’s 850 nm VCSEL light sources. These parallel systems will transmit one 10 Gb/s signals on each of 4 or 10 fibers (for 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s, respectively). Each 10 Gb/s signal will be aggregated in an arrayed transceiver containing 4, or 10, VCSELs and detectors.
For these parallel systems, IEEE set an objective of a minimum reach of 100 meters (m), specifically on OM3 fiber (OM1 and OM2 fibers will not be supported in the 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s standard). Because the 100 m distance is expected to cover only about 85 percent of data center links, the Task force subsequently adopted OM4, capable of reaching 125 m. Although the additional 25 m may seem insignificant, it will support the majority of the remaining access to distribution and  distribution to core links in large data centers.

Note: FiberStore is a professional fiber optic cable manufacturer. We supply many kinds of 10G fiber cables. They are used for different applications, one must do a thorough research before buying fiber cables for network cabling. If you have some questions with 10G fiber cable, pls contact us in FiberStore website or via sales@fs.com.

Some Info About Fiber Optic Multiplexer Technology

In the long-distance optical fiber transmission,the fiber cables have a small effect on the optical signal transmission,the transmission quality of optical fiber transmission system mainly depends on the optical multiplexers’ quality,because optical multiplexer is responsible for electrical/optical and optical/electric conversion and optical transmitting and receiving. Optical fiber multiplexer as terminal equipment of transmission optical signal, usually used in pairs, divided into optical receiver and optical transmitter, optical transmitter is used to convert electrical signals into optical signals to realize electrical/optical conversion, and the optical signal input optical fiber transmission.Optical receiver is used to restore a in the optical fiber for optical signal into electrical signal to realize optical/electric conversion. It’s fit and unfit quality directly affects the whole system, so you need to know something about the performance and application of the fiber optic multiplexers, it can help you better configuration and procurement.

What is video multiplexer?

Fiber optic video multiplexer is used to transform video signals to fiber optic signals, it is analog fiber optic video multiplexer and digital video multiplexer, the digital one is more and more used and it is the popular model in current market. This product is generally used in security applications to control and monitor the video camera signals.

Fiber Optic Multiplexer Technology:

Fiber optic multiplexer technology serves single-mode and multimode optical fibers with multichannel rack mount or standalone units. Multiplexers aren’t only for connecting multiple devices across a network. Multiplexers are also commonly used to distribute data from a SONET core, allowing for the distribution of DS-1, DS-3, and other circuit mode communications to several devices throughout a network. Again, this allows for multiple devices to share an expensive resource.

Used by cellular carriers, Internet service providers, public utilities, and businesses, fiber optic multiplexer technology extends the reach and power of telecommunications technologies. Network management systems allow for system service and maintenance, and provide for security, fault management, and system configuration. With advantages like lower costs and longer life expectancies, current fiber-optical networks are aided by improvements in multiplexing technology, and may provide light speed data transmission well into the future. Multiplexed systems also simplify system upgrades since numbers of channels and channel bandwidth is a function of the electronics rather than the transmission line or components.

Feature Of Optical Multipexer:

Fiberstore fiber optic video multiplexer adopt the international advanced digital video and optical fiber transmission technology, these fiber optic multiplexers are various models and can be custom made according to customers’ requirement. Our products can transmit from 1 channel video signal to max 64 channel video signals in different optional distances. They can be with optional audio channel and reverse data channel. Interfaces can be RS232, RS422 or RS485. Fiber optic ports are typical FC, with SC or ST optional. The fiber optic video multiplexers are single mode types and multimode types, used with different kinds of optical fiber lines.We provide some types of optical multiplexers, including video multiplexers,video & data multiplexers,video & audio multiplexers, video & data & audio multiplexers, PDH multiplexer, and we supply optical multiplexer in different channels,such as 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32 channels.

Custom Service:

We supply stand alone type fiber optic video multiplexers and chassis type fiber optic video multiplexers,we also have custom service, many types of fiber optic products could custom in our company, all these products are with flexible design according to customer requirement, they are good prices and fast delivery. If you have parameters in the request for your fiber optic products, I think we can offer you all you need.

Understanding Fiber Optic Based Light Source

Each piece of active electronics will have a variety of light sources used to transmit over the various types of fiber. The distance and bandwidth will vary with light source and quality of fiber. In most networks, fiber is used for uplink/backbone operations and connecting various buildings together on a campus. The speed and distance are a function of the core, modal bandwidth, grade of fiber and the light source, all discussed previously. Light sources of the fiber light source are offered in a variety of types. Basically there are two types of semiconductor light sources available for fiber optic communication – The LED sources and the laser sources.

Using single mode fiber for short distances can cause the receiver to be overwhelmed and an inline attenuator may be needed to introduce attenuation into the channel. With Gigabit to the desktop becoming commonplace, 10Gb/s backbones have also become more common. The SR interfaces are also becoming common in data center applications and even some desktop applications. As you can see, the higher quality fiber (or laser optimized fiber) provides for greater flexibility for a fiber plant installation. Although some variations ( 10GBase-LRM SFP+ and 10GBASE-LX4) support older grades of fiber to distances 220m or greater, the equipment is more costly. In many cases, it is less expensive to upgrade fiber than to purchase the more costly components that also carry increased maintenance costs over time.

Light sources of the fiber light source are offered in a variety of types. Basically there are two types of semiconductor light sources available for fiber optic communication – The LED sources and the laser sources.

In fiber-optics-based solution design, a bright light source such as a laser sends light through an optical fiber, called laser light source . Along the length of the fiber is an ultraviolet-light-treated region called a “fiber grating.” The grating deflects the light so that it exits perpendicularly to the length of the fiber as a long, expanding rectangle of light. This optical rectangle is then collimated by a cylindrical lens, such that the rectangle illuminates objects of interest at various distances from the source. The bright rectangle allows line scan cameras to sort products at higher speeds with improved accuracy.

The laser fiber-based light source combines all the ideal features necessary for accurate and efficient scanning: uniform, intense illumination over a rectangular region; a directional beam that avoids wasting unused light by only illuminating the rectangle; and a “cool” source that does not heat up the objects to be imaged. Currently employed light sources such as tungsten halogen lamps or arrays of light-emitting diodes lack at least one of these features.

Why Choose Shielded Cable for Cabling System?

Shielded VS. Unshielded Cabling

In copper structured cabling system at all levels, there are two main network cable technical types: Shielded and Unshielded cabling systems. Both types have been in existence since the earliest cabling standards were defined. Shielded cabling using shielded cable became popular from the outset in countries like Germany, Austria, Switzerland and France, while U/UTP was quickly adopted in the rest of the world. Although both systems work fine at 1 Gigabit Ethernet data rates, shielded systems can demonstrate superior performance at higher data rates such as 10G due to their ability to reliably support higher frequency transmission.

Cable structure shielded cable vs unshielded cable

What Is the Function of a Shielded Cable?

F/UTP Shielded Cable

F/UTP cable shielding structure: Four pairs of wires in the data cable have a layer of aluminum foil shielded, this layer of shielding (also called screening) protects against EMI/FRI and crosstalk.

S/FTP Shielded Cable

In S/FTP structure, in addition to the braided foil shield, the four twisted pairs have a layer of aluminum foil shield respectively to protect the transmission signal and make sure they do not interfere with each other, making near-end crosstalk attenuation (NEXT) performance dramatically good. Better NEXT performance means higher SNR and better transmission quality and faster system output. S/FTP shielded cables’ excellent NEXT structural performance can not be compared by other cables (such as non-shielded U/UTP). Therefore, ISO11801 on the Cat7 cable (600MHz) and Cat7a  (1000MHz) only provides the S/FTP cable structure, U/UTP cannot meet.

10GBase-T Makes Data Cable Face New Problem: Alien Crosstalk

2006 Copper Gigabit Ethernet applications published the proposed new standard transport protocols 10GBASE-T. Compared to 1000Base-T, its transmission rate increased 10 times. 1000BASE-T copper cabling has requirements for parameters (Attenuation, NEXT, Return Loss, etc.). The bandwidth required to reach 1-100MHz with UTP Cat5e (Class D) cabling system. 10GBASE-T cabling channel requirements of all component parameters have to be up to 500MHz bandwidth, which requires copper to reach at least Cat6a (Class Ea) or higher level.

Along with the development of 10GBASE-T, external noise problems become more evident, resulting in a specification for external noise to be used to assess in the same bundle of cables, the interaction between different cables. This is what we call Alien Crosstalk. Alien Crosstalk will increase with the increase of frequency. Worse, 10GBASE-T confronted with external noise, will not be able to “adaptive” to lower the rate at which the network may be subsequently face paralysis. Therefore, to support 10GBASE-T cabling system application, the ability to resist alien crosstalk is vital.

Since 10GBASE-T high transmission frequencies and complex coding method is very sensitive to the external noise. Shielding system excellent coupling attenuation performance makes it naturally have to resist alien crosstalk. The unshielded system against alien crosstalk is usually only on the performance of 0dB. Shielding system in the design completely satisfies the application of 10G.

The Installation of 10GBase-T: U/UTP VS. FTP 80a

Unshielded System

As far as possible away from power cable during installation. Different applications (1Gb/s and 10Gb/s) in the same pipeline transmission will cause the external crosstalk.

Shielding System 

The advantages of using a shielding system can be technically proven by different complex parameters such as coupling attenuation, shielding efficiency and transfer impedance. But from a user’s point of view, what makes the most sense is the practical advantage of a shielded cable-based cabling solution in the ever-increasing world of high-speed network applications. The advantage of shielded cables over UTP cables is that they are aimed at deepening the effects of EMI caused by the widespread use of electronic devices. Moreover, an increase in the rate of network applications means that the network is more sensitive to EMI.

The Separation Distance Between the Data Cable and Power Cable

EN50174 standard defines the content of four different coupling attenuation value levels of data cable respectively from A (low coupling attenuation, worse) to D (high coupling attenuation, good).

Classification of information technology cables

Screened Unscreened Coaxial/twinaxial Segregation classification
Coupling attenuation at 30 Mhz to 100 Mhz TCL at 30 MHz to 100 MHz Screening attenuation at 30 MHz to 100 MHz
>= 80dB >= 70 -10xlg(f) dB >= 85dB d
>= 55dB >= 60 -10xlg(f) dB >= 55 dB c
>= 40 dB >= 50 -10xlg(f)dB >= 40 dB b
< 40 dB <50 -10xlg(f) dB < 40 dB a

Installers need to know which cable separated levels to determine the choice of the data requirements of the standard cable with power cable between the minimum separation distance. Data cable coupling attenuation higher the value and power cables minimum separation distance between the smaller. Please refer to the following three examples, screenshots from Nexans Toolkit.

U/UTP

Example 1: U/UTP (Class B – Coupling Attenuation >/= 40dB) -> 225mm

F/UTP

Example 2: F/UTP (Class C – Coupling Attenuation >/= 55dB)-> 114mm

S/FTP

Example 3: S/FTP (Class D – Coupling Attenuation >/= 80dB)-> 24mm

Relative to the shielded cable, the unshielded (U/UTP) separation distance between cable and power cable is further. In the implementation of the project, if need the data cable and power cable isolation far distance, we need a bigger size pipe/bridge, or even additional bridge, doing this will no doubt have higher cost, sometimes limited to the bridge installation space. To make matters worse, these additional requirements are often neglected or ignored, making network system the key point of interference.

Grounding

For shielded, unshielded systems and fiber optic cable, they all need to implement protective grounding. Because of the need to consider personal and equipment safety, therefore no matter adopt what kind of cabling system, the metal part of the system must be grounded. For the shielding system, also need to implement the functional ground.

Conclusion

Shielding system relative to the unshielded system has been greatly improved EMC performance. For Gigabit Ethernet applications, shielding against external interference effects is essential, and shielded cabling system had to meet the standards in the design of anti-alien crosstalk (A-XT) requirements, can effectively prevent the cable from the adjacent between the external crosstalk. Shielded cabling system with shielded cable adopted, properly grounded at both ends of the case, is superior to unshielded system in resisting external interference.

Related Articles:
Ethernet Cable Types – Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a, and Cat7
Difference of Straight Through and Crossover Cable
Patch Cable vs.Crossover Cable: What Is the Difference?
Quick View of Ethernet Cables Cat5, Cat5e And Cat6

Micrel Launches New Limiting Post Amplifier for 10Gbps FTTH PON Network

Micrel Semiconductor has introduced SY88053CL and SY88063CL limiting post amplifier. Both devices support the expansion of the next generation passive optical network (PON) FTTH XGPON and 10GEPON optical line terminal (OLT) ideal for applications. The product line also applies to support multi-rate applications. Fiber optic transceiver module, the maximum rate is up to 12.5Gbps. Support for Ethernet, Fibre Channel, OTN and OBSAI data rate.
“These new devices offer an impressive number of features including a new level of high bandwidth, high input sensitivity with programmable, wide range SD Assert and LOS De-Assert threshold levels, 4dB of electrical hysteresis, and stable SD Assert and LOS De-Assert timing to meet the stringent requirements of next generation PON network,” stated Tom Kapucija,director of marketing for the high speed communications business, Micrel. “Thesse features enable link efficiency optimization with increased system reach, higher link up-time and higher payload bandwidth.”Vice president for the timing and communications business group, Rami Kanama, said, “As the demand for more data at higher speeds increases, carries need to meet this demand by upgrading their line-side equipment and revamping their networks. Micrel continues its effort in addressing this demand at the device level. Our new optical limiting amplifier delivers speed, performance, and features that is critical to solving technical difficulties facing next generation FTTH, Enterprise, and transport networks. With increased link efficiency, system operators can achieve higher data transmission performance and potentially reduce carries’ CapEx and OpEx.”
Both devices incorporate fast SD Assert and LOS De-Assert times across the entire differential input voltage range of 5mVPP to 1800mVPP which enables improved link efficiency and optimization. In 3mVPP to 30mVPP wide LOS / SD threshold range provides a 4dB electrical hysteresis.  Integrated 50 Ohm input and output impedances optimize high speed signal integrity while reducing external component counts and in turn, cost. TTL compatible JAM input enables a SQUELCH function by routing back the LOS or SD signal.
The SY88053CL enable user adjustable decision threshold adjustment for optimized Bit Erro Rate operation in noisy applications with asymmetrical noise distribution while the SY880563CL provides a user selectable Digital Offset Correction function that automatically compensates for internal device offsets in the high speed data path. Other features include multi-rate 1Gbps to 12.5Gpbs operations, optional LOS or SD output, selectable RXOUT +/ RXOUT- signal polarity (SY88053CL) and 25ps typical rise / fall time. Beyond the current customer demand through increased performance margins, improved manufacturability of the module, while reducing costs. By increasing each node and the downstream branch exceeds 512ns link budget margin established, to improve the efficiency and data throughput of the link. By optimizing in a noisy environment and the error rate or RAMAN EDFA Optical Amplifier noise characteristics of asymmetric compensation, expanding the system extends the scope to improve the data throughput.
Both devices offer a wide power supply range of 3.3V+/-10 percent and come in an industrial temperature range of -40 degC to +85-degC and a tiny 3mm x 3mm QFN package.
Source: www.fs.com/news/

Three Types of Cable Connectors Used in Cabling Installation Techniques

There are three types cable connectors in a basic cabling installation techniques: twisted-pair connectors,coaxial cable connectors and fiber-optic connectors. Generally cable connectors have a male component and a female component, except in the case of hermaphroditic connectors such as the IBM data connector. Usually jacks and plugs are symmetrically shaped, but sometimes they are keyed. This means that they have a unique, asymmetric shape or some system of pins, tabs, and slots that ensure that the plug can be inserted only one way in the jack.
Twisted-Pair Cable Connectors

Many people in the cabling business use twisted-pair connectors more than any other type of connector. The connectors include the modular RJ types of jacks and plugs and the hermaphroditic connector employed by IBM that is used with shielded twisted-pair cabling. Twisted-Pair Cable Connectors are used with patch panels, punchdown blocks, and wall plates. Twisted-Pair Cable connector is called an IDC, or insulation displacement connector.
Most unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) and screened twisted-pair (ScTP) cable installations use patch panels and, consequently, 110-style termination blocks. The 110 Blocks (shown in Figure1) contains rows of specially designed slots in which the cables are terminated using a punch-down tool. When terminating 66-blocks, 110-blocks, and often, wall plates, both UTP and ScTP connectors use IDC technology to establish contact with the copper conductors. You don’t strip the wire insulation off the conductor as you would with a screw-down connection. Instead, you force the conductor either between facing blades or onto points that pierce the plastic insulation and make contact with the conductor.

Both UTP and ScTP cables use modular jacks and plugs. For decades, modular jacks have been commonplace in the home for telephone wiring.
Modular connectors come in four-, six-, and eight-position configurations. The number of positions defines the width of the connector. However, often only some of the positions have metal contacts installed. Make sure that the connectors you purchase are properly populated with contacts for your application.
Common Modular-Jack Designations and Their Configuration

Coaxial Cable Connectors
Unless you have operated a 10Base-2 or 10Base-5 Ethernet network, you are probably familiar only with the coaxial connectors you have in your home for use with televisions and video equipment. Actually, a number of different types of coaxial connectors exist.
>>F-Series Coaxial Connectors
The coax connectors used with video equipment are referred to as F-series connectors.The F-connector consists of a ferrule that fits over the outer jacket of the cable and is crimped in place. The center conductor is allowed to project from the connector and forms the business end of the plug. A threaded collar on the plug screws down on the jack, forming a solid connection. F-connectors are used primarily in residential installations for RG-58, RG-59, and RG-6 coaxial cables to provide CATV, security-camera, and other video services.

F-connectors are commonly available in one-piece and two-piece designs. In the two-piece design, the ferrule that fits over the cable jacket is a separate sleeve that you slide on before you insert the collar portion on the cable. Experience has shown us that the single-piece design is superior. Fewer parts usually means less fumbling, and the final crimped connection is both more aesthetically pleasing and more durable. However, the usability and aesthetics are largely a function of the design and brand of the two-piece product. Some two-piece designs are very
well received by the CATV industry.
>>N-Series Coaxial Connectors
The N-connector is very similar to the F-connector but has the addition of a pin that fits over the center conductor; The pin is suitable for insertion in the jack and must be used if the center conductor is stranded instead of solid. The assembly is attached to the cable by crimping it in place. A screw-on collar ensures a reliable connection with the jack. The N-type connector is used with RG-8, RJ-11U, and thicknet cables for data and video backbone applications.

>>The BNC Connector
When coaxial cable distributes data in commercial environments, the BNC connector is often used. BNC stands for Bayonet Neill-Concelman, which describes both the method of securing the connection and its inventors. Many other expansions of this acronym exist, including British Naval Connector, Bayonet Nut Coupling, Bayonet Navy Connector, and so forth. Used with RG-6, RG-58A/U thinnet, RG-59, and RG-62 coax, the BNC utilizes a center pin, as in the N-connector, to accommodate the stranded center conductors usually found in data coax.

The BNC connector comes as a crimp-on or a design that screws onto the coax jacket. As with the F-connector, the screw-on type is not considered reliable and should not be used. The rigid pin that goes over the center conductor may require crimping or soldering in place. The rest of the connector assembly is applied much like an F-connector, using a crimping die made specifically for a BNC connector.

Fiber-Optic Cable Connectors

Fiber-optic connections use different terminology than copper based connectors. The male end of the connection in a fiber-optic system is termed the connector, in contrast to the plug in a copperbased system. The female end of the connection is termed the receptacle or adapter, in contrast to the jack in a copper-based system.
To transmit data up to 10Gbps, two fibers are typically required: one to send and the other to receive. For 40Gbps and 100Gbps over multimode, as many as 24 fibers will be required. Fiber optic connectors fall into one of three categories based on how the fiber is terminated:
•Simplex connectors terminate only a single fiber in the connector assembly.
•Duplex connectors terminate two fibers in the connector assembly.
•Array connectors terminate more than two fibers (typically 12 or 24 fibers) in the connector assembly.

The disadvantage of simplex connectors is that you have to keep careful track of polarity. In other words, you must always make sure that the connector on the “send” fiber is always connected to the “send” receptacle (or adapter) and that the “receive” connector is always connected to the “receive” receptacle (or adapter). The real issue is when normal working folk need to move furniture around and disconnect from the receptacle in their work area and then get their connectors mixed up. Experience has shown us that the connectors are not always color coded or labeled properly. Getting them reversed means, at the least, that link of the network won’t work.

Array and duplex connectors and adapters take care of this issue. Once terminated, color coding and keying ensures that the connector can be inserted only one way in the adapter and will always achieve correct polarity.

Figure2: Some common Fiber Connector

>>The SFF Connector
As transmission rates increase and networks require the cramming in of a greater number of connections, the industry has developed small-form-factor (SFF) connectors and adapter systems for fiber-optic cables. The SC, ST, and FC Fiber Connector shown in Table 10.5 all take up more physical space than their RJ-45 counterparts on the copper side. This makes multimedia receptacle faceplates a little crowded and means that you get fewer terminations (lower density) in closets and equipment rooms than you can get with copper in the same space. The goal for the designers of the SFF connector was to create an optical-fiber connector with the same or lower crosssectional footprint as an RJ-45-style connector in order to increase the number of connections per area (higher density). The LC, the VF-45, and the MT-RJ SFF fiber-optic connectors were initially developed to support the increase in density of fiber connections. The LC Fiber Connector is gaining greater use and is regarded by many optical-fiber professionals.

Cabling Design and Thinking

Introduction

As all we known: cabling of building local area network (LAN) at the end of the 100m cabling, community area last 2km integrated network cabling computer data center room, such as several internal cabling. Cabling in different locations, in accordance with their purpose and corresponding transmission index calculating the length of the cabling to allow laying. No matter what position cabling used, all belong to the city telecommunications network extension and an important part. Only in depth understanding of urban development trends of telecommunication networks, in order to accurately grasp how to design integrated cabling; also only be taken with the city development strategy telecommunication network synchronization and with suitable, cabling can really play the overall effectiveness of the network and obtain win-win enconomic effects. Here only to the development of telecommunication networks, cabling should be synchronized with the development, as well as the latest developments in cabling issues such as study and discussion.

The development trend of telecommunication network

In traditional telecommunications networks based voice communication, a small amount of digital data network (DDN), Frame Relay (FR) point to point, such as low rate of data communication, a voice path begins only within the bandwidth of 64kbps. In the early 1990s, China’s foreign experience with the introduction of Ethernet Cable Wiring and network communication technology, and accordingly developed our standards, and actively promote the application of the telecommunications network to get great propress. In just 10 years time, network communication technology from 10 megabytes, 100 megabytes, Gigabit to 10 Gigabit-class development, or even 10 Gigabit-class network will soon put into large-scale application.

The development of the telecommunication network is omni-directional, methods of communication include: wired, wireless, satellite, etc.; Communication contents include: telephone, television, data, etc..

a. The rapid development of the passive optical network (PON)

Currently, the passive optical network (PON) is rapidly developing country, for example: EPON (Ethernet Passive Optical Network), GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network), GEPON (Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network), APON (ATM Passive Optical Network), BPON (Broadband Passive Optical Network) and other network applications, structured cabling will have a direct impact. Now illustrate EPON/GPON networking mode:

EPON/GPON is mainly composed of OLT (Optical Line Terminal), ODN (Optical Distribution Network) and ONU (Optical Network Unit) and other components. EPON / GPON networking shown in Figure 1:

 EPON / GPON networking

The network characteristics of EPON/GPON:

* On the OLT and ONU in addition to optical interface, combined with GE (Gigabit Ethernet), FE (Fiber optic Ethernet), RF (Radio Frequency), E1 (2.048Mbps) interfaces, can be applied to various network applications.

* EPON can provide uplink and downlink symmetrical rate 1.25Gbps.

* GPON can provides uplink 155Mbps, 622Mbps, 1.24Gbps or 2.48Gbps; Downlink 1.24Gbps or 2.48Gbps.

* Public IP network signal WDM CWDM DWDM, the uplink of 1490nm and downlink of 1310nm signal through the central office OLT integrated transceivers were injected into the same optical fiber, through the optical distribution network ODN spending 32.64 points or 128 optical link to the corresponding ONU. If necessary, can also be injected CATV signals using the third wavelength of 1550nm central office OLT transceiver integrated in the corresponding ONU than the client integrated transceivers separated by the RF interface of the user received a cable distribution network.

* EPON/GPON network support tree, star, bus, hybird and redundant topology etc..

* EPON is based on the standard Ethernet technology and IEEEP802.3ah, in the case of transport 1.25Gbps data stream, the optical line terminal (OLT) and the optical network terminal (ONU) between a transmission distance up to about 20km.

* GPON is based on the ITU-T standard G984.1-G984.5 version, is preferred in Europe and North America, FTTH technology, is being used worldwide. GPON generic framing protocol that provides a multi-protocol transmission efficiency can provide an open interface, with 2.48Gbps rate symmetric and asymmetric transmission capacity, OLT/ONU transmission distance up between 37km.

b. FTTH or FTTB/N

As EPON/GPON technology matures, the price of Optical Fiber Cable are more and more cheap. Fiber optic cable extends to the floor, community nodes, and even to the family increasingly likely. As telecom companies certainly want to consider the relationship between input and output in the short term cost recovery and profit is the ultimate goal.

The advantages of FTTH solutions:

1. Provide greater bandwidth capacity, suitable for high speed network applications.

2. Is not affected by the outside electromagnetic interference, anti-interference performance is good, high quality communications.

3. Silica fiber material production inexhaustible.

4. The price of fiber optic cable has lower than copper (but photoelectric conversion equipment price is still relatively high, therefore, the overall cost is higher).

The disadvantages of FTTH solutions:

1. Same scale projects, the initial investment is higher.

2. New fiber optic cable and more, longer construction period (relative to the FTTB/N solution).

3. Slow return on investment.